Day 2 :
Keynote: Green technology for biodiesel: Production of methyl esters from macauba oil over egg shell and marble heterogeneous catalysts
Time : 09:00-09:30
Prof. Vânya Márcia Duarte Pasa, PhD, senior researcher and professor at Federal University of Minas Gerais, is a specialist in the development of green technologies, especially biomaterials and biofuels. She is chemical engineer with PhD in Chemistry (UFMG-1995). She has been working at UFMG since 1996 and in the last 6 years she has developed researches about biodiesel production, new catalysis development, biokerosene, green diesel production and biomaterials derivate from recovered waste from fuels production chains. She has been the coordinator of LEC (Fuel Laboratory of UFMG – Federal University of Minas Gerais) since 2000. During this period, she has worked with Public Prosecution Service, ANP (Brazilian Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels), Petrobras S/A, CEPAL-UNESCO, GTZ-SENER – Mexico government, ACESITA/ARCELOR, FIAT-CHRYSLER, RIMA S/A and Boeing Research and Technology.
This research explores the exceptional use of waste minerals like eggshell and marble as precursors of sustainable catalysts to be used for biodiesel production. Macauba was used as promising and innovative triglyceride source. Th is palm tree is native in South America and presents high oil productivity (6000 kg/ha/year). Th e waste minerals were previously calcinated and characterized by X-ray diff raction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Each catalyst was heated in methanol to improve its effi ciency, aft er, the macauba oil was added. Th e reactions were performed at refl ux temperature and the reactants were vigorously stirred (700 rpm). During reaction, samples were periodically taken every half hour for a kinetics study. Aft er catalysts separation, all reaction products were cleaned with an ion-exchange resin and anhydrous sodium sulfate. Th e samples were analyzed by HPLC, NMR and GC. Th e raw materials and biodiesel were characterized by density, viscosity, water content and acid value. In addition, the oxidative stability, the maximum plugging point and the ester content of the biodiesels were analyzed. The conversions were high (70-94%) for 3 hours of reactions. Both residual solids seem to be robust and eff ective catalysts for macauba oil transesterifi cation, although Ca leaching was observed. After clean final step, the macauba biodiesel are in compliance with most of the quality standards.
The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, USA
Time : 09:30-10:00
Dr. Hosseini has earned both his PhD and MS degrees in Chemical Engineering from the University of Akron, in Ohio, USA. He has also completed an MSE degree in Manufacturing Engineering at UTRGV in Texas, USA, and a Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran, Iran. Dr. Hosseini has edited book and book chapters, co-invented patents application technologies, and authored multiple peer reviewed research articles. He has served as a key speaker at national and international conferences and meetings and has been actively engaged in technology development. He is a persistent reviewer of leading international journals.
An ideal platform as an energy source, algal biofuels could potentially aid in the increasing demand for fuel and may be instrumental in slowing down the process of global warming while subsequently enhancing energy security. Genetic engineering may play a role in creating more effi cient microalgae biofuels and hence making it a viable component of the
energy mix. Improving algae lipid production can be achieved through the inclusion of genetic modifi cation. Th is alteration could not only yield better quality lipids far more suitable as fuel feedstock, but could also allow for the inclusion of lipids in non-traditional products such feed, food or industrial applications. Th ere is also an opportunity to utilize genetic engineering to facilitate the downstream processing of algal biomass into fuels in an integrated biorefi nery. Algae biotechnology has also witnessed the emergence of a fi eld that focuses on introducing genes or metabolic pathways that yield economically important components not found in natural varieties. Examples of such products derived from genetically modifi ed algae include recombinant proteins, fatty acid, hydrogen, ethanol, etc. However, genetic engineering does not come without uncertainties. In this work, the progress and challenges faced when implementing metabolic engineering and genetic manipulation in order to improve algal biomass as a platform for biofuel production will be discussed. A description of cutting edge algae transgenic research is provided. Th e latest developments in engineered microalgae species and biofuels production via carbon metabolism pathway modifi cation are also discussed. Additionally, the role that genetic engineering may play to enhance algal lipid and biofuels production and increase its competitiveness through a biorefi nery approach is presented.