Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd International Congress and Expo on Biofuels & Bioenergy Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

Vijay Singh

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA

Keynote: Biodiesel and ethanol from modifi ed sugarcane

Time : 10:00-10:30

OMICS International Biofuels-2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Vijay Singh photo
Biography:

Vijay Singh received his MS and PhD in Food and Bioprocess Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is Professor in Food and Bioprocess Engineering and Associate Director of Integrated Bioprocessing Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research is on development of bioprocessing technologies for corn/biomass to ethanol, advanced biofuels, food and industrial products. He has directed more than $9.5 million research; authored more than 200 publications and holds ten patents related to corn processing and biofuels production. He has received numerous Excellence In Research Awards from professional societies, academic institutions and trade organizations.

Abstract:

A new bioenergy crop has been recently developed for the US: Lipid cane, a sugarcane engineered to produce non-food oil, as drop-in fuels, in place of sugar. Lipidcane present excellent potential to serve as a renewable fuel crops. Lipid cane is a crop suitable for land in the South Eastern US that is marginal, or unsuited for food crop production. At the current yields of sugarcane in the SE US, this would produce about 33 barrels of oil per acre, compared to about 1 from soybean. By increasing
the photosynthesis, even higher barrels of oil per acre can be produced. Sugarcane is far less demanding on soils and fertilizers than food crops in general, and can be grown on land unsuited to food/feed crops. Th e US south-east has large areas of land that have dropped out of food and fi ber crops agriculture, a decline that continues to this day. Yet this area receives high rainfall, suffi cient to avoid the need for irrigation, and the long growing season maximizes the amount of sunlight these crops can capture over the year. By modifying the plant’s own triaclyglyceride (oil, TAG) pathway to up-regulate synthesis in the mature stem and down regulate consumption, so causing accumulation. TAGs, in lipid cane are similar to those of soybean and can be easily converted to biodiesel. Preliminary estimates indicate that using the 23 billion acres of marginal land in the SE US that is not in food production, more than 25 billion gallons of oil could be produced with these crops. Techno-economic evaluation of lipid cane as biofuel crops will be presented.

Keynote Forum

Jordan Godwin

Platts, USA

Keynote: Sink or Swim: Navigating the biofuels climate in an oil price recession

Time : 10:30-11:00

OMICS International Biofuels-2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Jordan Godwin photo
Biography:

Jordan Godwin is a Biofuels Analyst for Platts in Houston, Texas. He has covered biofuels pricing, trends and policies since 2012, originally serving as a Price Reporter on the US ethanol, biodiesel and RINs markets for two years before moving over to the Platts Analytics team. His main areas of focus include supply/ demand forecasts, tracking global trade fl ows and other trends in the biofuels industries, with a key focus on North American, Asian and African markets. Prior to joining Platts, he served as a Journalist for two years after receiving his Bachelor of Journalism from the University of Texas, Austin in 2010.

Abstract:

With so much uncertainty plaguing global biofuels markets in 2015, producers, investors, traders and market participants of all backgrounds need answers on: What direction does the industry takes in 2016? How has the historic oil decline aff ected the biofuels outlook in the past six months, and what does it mean for the industry moving forward? Will policy setbacks in the US and UK continue to stunt biofuel industry growth in 2016? How can the markets thrive with explosively volatile feedstock agriculture prices dragging margins on for a rollercoaster ride? Will Asian and Middle Eastern markets continue to emerge as major consumers in 2016 and if so, how can Western holders capitalize? Platts off ers answers to all of these questions with our vast and in-depth global biofuels market coverage. For nearly three years, I worked as a Price Reporter with an ear on the ground as US ethanol markets shift ed all over the place, driven by wild corn prices and federal government policy swings. Now, my mission as a Biofuels Analyst is to provide insight into both the status quo in the global biofuels picture as well as the future of the markets, utilizing specifi c historical trends and dozens of producer margin models.

Break:
Group Photo and Networking & Refreshment Break 11:00-11:20 @ Foyer Versailles
OMICS International Biofuels-2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Yinbo Qu photo
Biography:

Prof. Qu graduated from Shandong University in 1974, got his Ph.D. there in 1986, became a research assistant in 1981, and became full professor in 1993 in Shandong University. He had been a visiting scholar in The University of Tokyo, Lund University and Kyoto University. His main research interest is biodegradation and bioconversion of lignocellulosics by microorganisms. With cooperation of his colleagues, more than 300 papers and 10 books were published in his research fields. He was elected as Vice President of Chinese Society for Microbiology in 2006 and Advisory Board Member of Asia Federation of Biotechnology in 2010.

Abstract:

For improving economic feasibility of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues, cellulase should be produced on-site to reduce the cost of cellulose saccharification. Shandong Tranlin Group has developed a set of technologies to produce pulp and paper from million tons of straws by ammonium sulfite process, and produce fulvic acid as fertilizer from the spent sulfite black liquor. A very large amount of waste straw (straw clippings or chaff, about one third of feedstock) was leaved there without valuable usage. A new process was proposed to produce ethanol from those waste straws. The waste straw and wheat bran was used as main component of medium for cellulase production on-site. Since the black liquor contains large amount of oligosaccharides and nitrogen, it was fed into bioreactors as inducer and nutrients for cellulase production by fed-batch process. The cellulase activities increased at very low cost. The xylose in the hydrolysate also was fermented to ethanol by an engineered yeast strain constructed in our laboratory to increase ethanol concentration and yield. A pilot plant with a capacity of 2,500 tons cellulosic ethanol per year was designed and is constructing now, with expectation to built commercial facilities with capacity of 100,000 tons ethanol per year accompany with paper and fertilizer products hereafter.

  • Biomass | Algae Biofuels (Session I)
Location: Lorangerie II
Speaker

Chair

Yinbo Qu

Shandong University, China

Speaker

Co-Chair

Vijay Singh

University of Illinois, USA

Speaker
Biography:

Lourdes Orejuela is a chemical engineer graduated in the Politechnic Institute of Bucharest, Rumania (MSc 1984 in Organic Chemistry Technology). She achieved a MSc degree in Virginia Tech (Wood Science) in 1995. She was appointed as professor in Universidad Central del Ecuador in 1995, in Escuela Politecnica del Ejercito in 1997 and since 1999 is professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering in Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador. She currently is pursuing a PhD degree in Virginia Tech (Depatment of Sustainable Biomaterials) in the Macromolecular Science and Engineering. Her interest is to develop integrated processes for the utilization of biomass and biomass waste.

Abstract:

Biomass is the most abundant material on the earth and can be sustainably produced around the world [1]. Utilization of biofuels has increased over the last 15 years and bioenergy will provide around 30% of the world’s energy by 2050 [2]. A biorefinery is a system of sustainable, environmentally and resource friendly technologies for production of materials and energy derived from biological raw materials [3], it replaces fossil based petrochemical industry by the conversion of carbohydrates from lignocellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars to produce liquid biofuels [4]. This study attempts to apply the biorefinery concept (fig. 1) to biomass cell wall deconstruction, in a process of three steps - pretreatment, fractionation and hydrolysis; for bioethanol production, an additional fermentation step is required (fig. 2) [5, 6]. Plant cell walls are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, which form a recalcitrant barrier against enzymatic digestion and therefore limit the production of biofuels and high–value chemicals [7]. A pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance is needed [8-10], processes for selective biopolymer dissolution are of great interest, particularly those which use less harmful solvents and less energy. DES are thermally stable, biodegradable, inexpensive, easy to prepare and they can selectively dissolve biomass polymers [11-17]. A chelator mediated Fenton system depolymerizes polysaccharides to fermentable sugars and modifies lignin in the lignocellulosic matrix [18-21]. Combination of the DES technology and CMFs chemistry may provide a solution to explore biorefinery viability (fig. 2). In this study, four different pretreatments were carried out for SG and YP. Samples were treated with choline chloride:glycerol DES (1:2) at 150°C for 2h; also with CMFs reagents incubated in a water bath at 30°C; and a combination of both pretreatments (CMFs+DES and DES+CMFs). The impact of the pretreatments was monitored by the mass loss and by the compositional analysis before and after the pretreatments for mass balance determination. Delignification, enzyme accessibility (biomass porosity) and cellulose crystallinity are key factors in the enzyme hydrolysis performance for fermentable sugars and bioethanol production.

Speaker
Biography:

Carmina Reyes Plascencia obtained her Chemical Engineering degree in 2010 from Instituto Tecnólogico de Celaya, Mexico. She has completed her Master’s in Chemical Engineering (type research) in 2014 from Université de Sherbrooke, Canada in “The Preparation and Use of a Nanocatalyst for Steam Reforming Reaction”. During her Master’s, she was part of SOFC Canada network from 2010 to 2013 and Biofuel network in 2014. Currently, she is a PhD student at Universidad de la República, Uruguay, focusing her research in hydrothermal liquefaction process.

Abstract:

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a process of interest to produce biofuels from biomass, specially biomass with a high moisture content, since feedstock does not need to be dried. In HTL process, biomass is subjected to temperatures between 250ºC and 550ºC and high pressure (5-30 MPa) during short residence times in aqueous medium. Th e HTL products are: Gas, biocrudes which are not soluble in water, water soluble organics (WSO) and a solid rich in carbon known as hydrochar. Th is work presents the effect of reaction conditions on product distribution of HTL using Eucalyptus globulus. Th e reaction was carried out in a Parr 4575 reactor of 0.5 L capacity. Th e temperatures studied were 300ºC and 350ºC with reaction times of 0 and 15 min and biomass: liquid medium ratio of 1:1 or 1:6 using an aqueous solution of K2CO3 1M as catalyst. All the tests were made at a pressure corresponding to the water vapor pressure at reaction temperature plus the pressure of gas produced during reaction. The gas phase was recovered and analysed by gas chromatography. Th e other products were separated and quantifi ed in order to calculate its yield. Th e results show that the studied reaction conditions have infl uence in the product distribution, allowing to maximize the yield for each phase by selecting the appropriate reaction parameters.

David Nichols

University of Nottingham, UK

Title: Modification of Biomass Ash by Aluminosilicates and other Additives

Time : 12:30-12:50

Speaker
Biography:

David Nichols graduated from Bangor University, UK in 2014 with a Master of Chemistry (MChem) degree. He is now a research engineer at the University of Nottingham pursuing an Engineering Doctorate (EngD) at their Centre for Doctoral Training (CDT) in Carbon Capture and Storage and Cleaner Fossil Energy. The research is funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) through the CDT (grant: EP/L016362/1) for the Flex-E-Plant project (grant: EP/K021095/1)

Abstract:

The slagging and fouling characteristics of biomass fuels can act as a barrier to their use as a fuel for thermal power generation. Biomasses with high alkali metal and alkaline earth metal contents have particularly high slagging and fouling propensities due to the formation of low melting temperature mineral phases. The use of additives has previously been shown to inhibit the volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth containing species during combustion (eg. Tran, K.Q., Iisa, K., Steenari, B.M. and Lindqvist, O., 2005. Fuel, 84(2), pp.169-175). The aim of this study is to obtain fundamental information on interactions between alkali/alkaline earth metals and additives, particularly preventing the formation of low melting phases. Under slow heating conditions using a furnace and TGA, biomass ashes produced at low temperature have been heated to high temperatures with clay additives. The rates of alkali and alkaline earth metal retention by the use of different additives are being studied quantitatively. The same tests are being conducted in a drop tube furnace to replicate fast heating rate pulverised fuel combustion conditions. The ashes are being analysed by SEM-EDX and XRF/ICP to identify minerals present and identify the impact of the additives on the low melting phases produced at combustion temperatures. Initial mass balances suggest that clay additives do not necessarily enhance the retention of potassium in all cases.

Break:
Lunch Break 12:50-13:40 @ Vargas Restaurant

Débora Tomasini

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Title: Fractionation of bio-oils from the pyrolysis of coconut fibers

Time : 13:40-14:00

Speaker
Biography:

Débora has completed her PhD at the age of 29 years from Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul and has experience in analytical chemistry. Actually, She is a postdoctoral researcher at the same University, working with the characterization of bio-oils using different chromatographic techiques.

Abstract:

In Brazil, the coconut is cultivated mainly in the Northeast Region, and the coconut shells are normally wasted in landfills, which mean a high environmental impact. The total recovery of this material is interesting not only due to environmental impact but also due to the possibility of use as industial raw material or alternative bio-fuels. In this work, it was carried out the study of bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis from Coconut fibers by GC×GC/TOF-MS. One of the forms for recovering waste materials is its pyrolysis. This procedure transforms ligno-cellullosic biomasses into liquids (bio-oil), solids (biochar) and gases. The main questions are: which products and what is the amount obtained of these products that can be produced by pyrolysis of one special biomass? For this propose, it is necessary a choice of the better conditions for the pyrolysis and to characterize completely the main products. In this work, the residual fibers of coconut were subjected to fast pyrolysis, producing bio-oil and this bio-oil was submitted to a fractionation in column, using Amberlyst A-27TM ion-exchange resin as stationary phase, and the fractions obtained were characterized by GC×GC/TOF-MS. This procedure was done as a manner of simplify the complexity of the original bio-oil. Before the fractionation, 277 compounds were tentatively identified in the bio-oil, being verified that 57% of the area on the chromatogram of bio-oil was composed by phenols, 17% by ketones and 12% by aldehydes. After the pre-treatment with the ion-exchange column, the non-polar fraction showed 252 compounds that were tentatively identified, showing mainly hydrocarbons (20%) and esters (14%), besides presenting some phytosterols that were not detected in the untreated sample. In the polar fraction 164 compounds were tentatively identified, which phenols corresponding to 50% of area, followed by aldehydes (15%) and acids (12%). The fractionation was essential for the enrichment of fractions in specified classes of compounds, specially separated in non-polars and polars. These compounds are important for different industrial uses: hydrocarbons and esters have potential to be used as fuel while phenols can be used as a raw material for laminate industries and manufacturing of special chemicals, as phenolic resins. This indicates that coconut fibers have the potential to be a cost-effective and promising alternative to obtain new products and minimize environmental impact.

Speaker
Biography:

Carla Andreia Freixo Portela has a PhD in Chemical and Biological Engineering since 2013 from the University of Minho and University of Auckland, where she worked on the reconstruction of the genome scale model of the pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. She currently works as a Post-doc Researcher in the biofuels area, namely for butanol production where she explores in silico strategies to optimize the solvent production using clostridia species.

Abstract:

For the last few years, the production of butanol has been the focus of researchers’ attention when looking for alternatives to biofuels’ production. Interesting results have already been achieved with heterologous organisms such as Escherichia coli. However, native producers from clostridia group still presents the best alternative to succeed; as they possess all the machinery required and evolutionarily were optimized to produce butanol. However, there are several limitations that need to be assessed in order to control the production of other unwanted end-products such as ethanol, acetone, lactate or succinate that may deviate the fluxes away from butanol. Strategies of metabolic engineering have been on the table for over the last 15 years. However, the targets that seemed obvious at fi rst, have proven not to increment signifi cantly butanol titers showing that C. acetobutylicum metabolism is not as straightforward as it seemed. Going deep into understanding the solventogenic metabolism became therefore a key step into overcoming the diffi culties to channel the metabolism towards butanol production. In this work, we apply deep in silico analysis in order to learn and understand the peculiarities of this microorganism metabolism. Our study suggests a new in silico strategy to maximize butanol production.

Speaker
Biography:

Muhammad Azam Saeed is in final year of his PhD in the field of ‘Pulverized Biomass Flame Propagation’. His main expertise are in the agricultural waste crop residue as energy source and hazards assesement associated with these fuels. He has eight conference papers presented in the renowned International conferences. He has one published journal paper in the ‘journal of Loss prevention’ and three others papers are in the revision phase in Combustion Science and Technology journal, Fuel Journal and International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.

Abstract:

Renewable biomass crop residues are a viable and low cost fuel option for power generation plants. For an agricultural country like Pakistan this locally accessible fuel source can be used as a substitute for coal for a more environmentally friendly, distributed grid of smaller power generation plants. However, these alternative fuels have unquantified fire/explosion risks associated with their handling and also unknown burning characteristics which will affect the burner design. Reliable measurements of the reactivity parameters for these biofuels depend on a number of factors arising from their chemical and physical properties. In this work, fundamental properties such as flame speeds, burning velocities, maximum pressure and the explosibility coefficient have been measured for different size fractions of a selected rice husk crop residue using a modified 1 m3 vessel. Explosibility properties were found to be more severe for the finer fractions compared to the coarser sizes. MEC were measured to be from 0.4 for the finest fraction to 2.1 for coarser fraction in terms of actual burnt equivalence ratio. Most reactive concentration was measured at low equivalence ratio for fine fraction as compared to coarse size fraction. Peak volume normalised rate of pressure rise for fine fraction was measured to be 83 bar m/s higher than 33 bar m/s for the coarse fraction. Surface morphological study showed more fines contributing in flame propagation leaving coarse particles partially burnt. The finer powder samples were also shown to have a higher ash content which may adversely affect the burning rates and pre-washing of the samples may eliminate some of the inert content and improve burning characteristics.

Speaker
Biography:

Robert Stirling completed his Masters degree in Chemistry with Industrial Experience (MChem) in 2014 from the University of Edinburgh, UK. The industrial experience was a year-long placement conducted at Cytec Industries, based in Stamford, Connecticut, USA, researching minerals separation techonology. He is currently conducting research towards an Engineering doctorate (EngD) at the Centre for Doctoral Training (CDT) in Carbon Capture and Storage and Cleaner Fossil Energy, based at the University of Nottingham, UK. The research is funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) through the CDT (Grant: EP/L016362/1) as part of the Flex-E-Plant project (Grant: EP/K021095/1).

Abstract:

Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) is potentially an attractive option as a pre-treatment process to produce an energy dense, friable, reduced-ash, chlorine free solid biofuel (also referred to as biocoal) from biomass. It is particularly attractive for waste feedstocks with a high moisture content, which would not require drying before treatment. HTC experiments have been conducted on a range of biomasses, including wood pellets, olive cake, miscanthus pellets, and sewage sludge over the temperature range of 200-300oC with residence times up to 4 hours, using a Parr reactor. The resultant char was then subjected to proximate analysis with the alkali and alkaline earth metal contents of the process water being determined by ion chromatography and induction-coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. To complete the mass and carbon balance, gas chromatography was used to analyse the gas generated by the process and the dissolved organic carbon content of the process water was determined. The biocoals produced had considerably higher fixed carbon contents than the feedstocks with the HTC process generating additional quantities of fixed carbon compared to the feedstocks. At 200oC, the biocoal represented 82% (dry, ash free basis) of the wood, which corresponds to over 90% of the initial carbon. Although increasing temperature increases fixed carbon content further, the yields of biocoal were reduced markedly. HTC was also shown to reduce ash content considerably through extraction of alkali and alkaline earth metals.

  • Biomass | Algae Biofuels (Session II)
Location: Lorangerie II
Speaker

Chair

Daniel Bastos de Rezende

UFMG, Brazil

Speaker

Co-Chair

Nestor Proenza Prez

Sao Paulo State University, Brazil

Session Introduction

Nestor Proenza Pérez

São Paulo State University, Brazil

Title: Characterization of sugarcane bagasse produced in the central region of São Paulo state in Brazil

Time : 14:40-15:00

Speaker
Biography:

Nestor Proenza Pérez, Mechanical Engineer, MSc, has completed his graduation at the University of Camaguey in 2003. He is working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the same university since September of 2012. He has completed his Master’s in Energy Effi ciency and PhD fellow at Laboratory of Optimization of Energy Systems (LOSE) in Sao Paulo State University (UNESP). His research areas include gasifi cation, fl uidized bed system, bioenergy, and fl uid mechanics systems. He has published several papers in reputed journals and in congress proceedings, and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of several journals.

Abstract:

The sugarcane bagasse characterization is an essential issue for the adequate design and implementation of fl uidized bed technologies that use this biomass as feedstock. Th is work presents the determination of the main physical, chemical and geometrical properties of bagasse particles of sugarcane collected at the central region of São Paulo in Brazil. Th e characterization techniques used, were the commonly used for other particles. Th e granulometric characterization was made by sieve techniques; the determined characteristic mean diameter for this biomass was 0.722 mm. Also was carried out the proximate analysis, for determining the content of moisture, ash, volatile matter and fi xed carbon. In the case of the ash content, the obtained value was 3.56±0.82%; slightly higher than values previously reported by others authors. Th e gross calorifi c value and the real, apparent and bulk densities were determined. The geometric characterization was made through two important factors: the aspect ratio (AR) and sphericity. Th e shapes of the particles were studied by manual and through images analysis method, using the ImageJ soft ware. Was observed that sugarcane bagasse particles have a larger length than the others analyzed biomasses with almost a similar width. Th e aspect ratio was in the range of 3.922±2.736. For particles with diameters lower than 0.3 mm, the aspect ratio have a similar comportment than the others biomasses with a reporter value of 2.5. Th e obtained sphericity for the sugarcane bagasse was 0.397.

Eliane Lazzari

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Title: Production and chromatographic characterization of bio-oil from the rice husk pyrolysis

Time : 15:00-15:20

Speaker
Biography:

Eliane Lazzari completed her Master degree in Chemistry in 2014 from the University of Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brazil. Industry experience, working on the development of methods of extraction and analysis by gas and liquid chromatography of environmental samples. Currently she is conducting her PhD in the same University, acting on the following topics: one-dimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography applied for characterization of complex samples with emphasis on bio-oils samples derived from biomass pyrolysis.

Abstract:

One interesting and abundant source of biomass is the rice husk, mainly in Rio Grande do Sul state (south of Brazil), where approximately 12.6 million tons per year of rice husk is produced. Th e disposal of this waste is a serious environmental problem due to their properties, diffi cult to decompose, and its high phenolic content turnning highly toxic for rivers or lakes. An alternative to reduce the amount of rice husk is its conversion into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. Pyrolysis not only reduces its amout, but transforms it in a added value chemical (bio-oil) and an interesting solid residue (biochar) with potential use as adsorbent or for soil enrichment. For a convincing application of the bio-oil, it is needed to characterize it completely, defi ning what are the major compounds and what are their concentration levels. Only aft er this, it is possible to propose a recovery route of these compounds from the original biomass. In this study, a bio-oil from the fast pyrolisis (100 ºC/min) rice husk was produced and details of its composition was studied by GCxGC/TOFMS (Time-of-fl ight mass spectrometry). Pyrolysis was conducted in a fi xed bed reactor (lab-scale) using following parameters: 6.5 g of sample (0.5-1 mm), oven heating from 25°C to 650°C at the rate of 100°C/min and nitrogen fl ow of 1 L/min. Th e yield of the rice husk bio-oil, with aqueous phase, obtained under these conditions was 36.5%. Th e GC×GC/TOFMS was allied to soft ware tools and Retention Index was calculated for each compound according to Van den Dool & Kratz’s equation, were very important in the characterization of bio-oil compounds allowing the identifi cation of 149 compounds. Our results showed that a composition of rice husk bio-oil was predominantly phenolic (32.6%) which is of intersest to replace fossil phenol for the production of chemicals. Th e major constituents in this oil were found to be 2-methoxy-phenol (5.09%) and 1,2-benzenediol (4.05%). Another class of compound with high concentration was furanones (2(5H)-furanone) (3.93%), which can be used in the industry of heterocycles and pesticides. Th e pyrolysis of rice husk proved to be a good alternative for the diminution of the large amount of this residue.

Patrick James Dale

University of Nottingham, UK

Title: Image analysis based ash fusion testing

Time : 15:20-15:40

Speaker
Biography:

Patrick James Daley received his MEng from the University of Nottingham in Chemical Engineering in 2014; this included a one year placement with RWE npower. He currently works in the Centre for Doctoral Training as a Research Engineer at the University of Nottingham in the Energy Technologies Building. He is working towards an Engineering Doctorate in the development of advanced ash fusion testing. His work is being sponsored by BF2RA and is supervised by GE

Abstract:

Ash fusion characteristics for a wide range of potential biomass fuels can be fully automated using image analysis techniques. Traditionally, ash fusion analysis involves heating pyramidal ash pellets in a furnace under oxidizing or reducing conditions to over 1500°C. Four characteristic behaviours over the temperature range are then identified, namely; ‘initial deformation’, ‘sphere’ or ‘softening’, ‘hemisphere’ and ‘flow’ temperatures. Whilst these temperatures are intended to help the operator predict boiler performance, they rely on visual observation rather than an objective physical measurement. Diff erences of up to 400°C have been reported for the initial deformation temperature of a single sample obtained from diff erent laboratories. A fully automated technique using image analysis has been developed that does not require manual interpretation and can provide a complete fi ngerprint of the behaviour of each sample. The relevance of these four temperatures will be discussed in detail as will the impact of improvements in furnace hardware and image analysis soft ware. A large test matrix of coals and biomass samples (including Russian, US and UK coals, hard and soft woods, and agrifuels) was tested to show how behavioural diff erences can be related to initial mineral composition whilst accurately predicting slagging and fouling potential.

Break:
Networking and Refreshment Break 15:40-16:00 @ Foyer Versailles

Robert J Stirling

University of Nottingham, UK

Title: Hydrothermal carbonization of biomass to produce reduced-ash fuel

Time : 16:00-16:20

Speaker
Biography:

Robert J Stirling has completed his Master’s degree in Chemistry with Industrial Experience (MChem) in 2014 from the University of Edinburgh, UK. The industrial experience was a year-long placement conducted at Cytec Industries, based in Stamford, Connecticut, USA, researching minerals separation technology. He is currently conducting research towards an Engineering Doctorate (EngD) at the Centre for Doctoral Training (CDT) in Carbon Capture and Storage and Cleaner Fossil Energy, based at the University of Nottingham, UK.

Abstract:

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is potentially an attractive option, as a pre-treatment process, to produce an energy dense, friable, reduced-ash and chlorine free solid biofuel (also referred to as biocoal) from biomass. It is particularly attractive for waste feed-stocks with a high moisture content, which would not require drying before treatment. HTC experiments have been conducted on a range of biomasses, including wood pellets, olive cake, miscanthus pellets, and sewage sludge over the temperature range of 200- 300oC with residence times up to 4 hours, using a Parr reactor. Th e resultant char was then subjected to proximate analysis with the alkali and alkaline earth metal contents of the process water being determined by ion chromatography and induction-coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. To complete the mass and carbon balance, gas chromatography was used to analyze the gas generated by the process and the dissolved organic carbon content of the process water was determined. Th e biocoals produced had considerably higher fixed carbon contents than the feed-stocks with the HTC process generating additional quantities of fi xed carbon compared to the feedstocks. At 200oC, the biocoal represented 82% (dry, ash free basis) of the wood, which corresponds to over 90% of the initial carbon. Although increasing temperature increases fixed carbon content further, the yields of biocoal were reduced markedly. HTC was also shown to reduce ash content considerably through extraction of alkali and alkaline earth metals.

Speaker
Biography:

Daniel Bastos Rezende is Chemical Engineer, with master degree and Ph.D in biofuels area, from Federal University of Minas Gerais. He worked for one year in CENIBRA, pulp and paper segment industry, as process engineer. He also has eight years of experience in FIAT-CHRYSLER (FCA), where he has worked for six years in the laboratory of fuels and lubricants and for two years as innovation projects manager, establishing an extensive network with suppliers and partners. In addition to industry experience, he has considerable experience as teacher, including two years at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, in disciplines of Engineering. At this moment, he is the Visiting Researcher of PRH-46 (Human Resources Program in Biofuels Chemistry) at UFMG.

Abstract:

Calcium oxide (CaO) has been studied as one of the most effi cient heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production, but ther are few studies about the effects of CaO morphology on calcium leaching and catalyst activity. In the present work, soybean transesterifi cation was performed using CaO from diff erent sources (commercial, synthesized from chicken eggshell and produced by a carbothermal route) to develop a comparative study. The 1H NMR results showed that the soybean oil transesterifi cation catalyzed with CaO, derived from all sources, yielded greater than 93% (m/m) methyl esters, 4 h refl ux, a molar methanol: Oil ratio of 12:1 and 3% catalyst. Th e amount of leached calcium was 219 ppm for the biodiesel synthesized with CaO derived from commercial sources, 194 ppm for CaO from eggshell and 93 ppm for CaO s from a carbothermal route. As consequence of higher Ca leaching content, CaO co precursor presented higher rate constant. Th is can be explained by the prompt reaction of Ca leaching and glycerol, yielding calcium diglyceroxide, which is the main catalytic specimen. Th e study showed that the homogeneous contribution from the leached species can be considered negligible. The heterogeneous catalysis was confi rmed for all diff erent CaO sources studied.

Speaker
Biography:

Arij Ben Amara has a Master’s thesis in “Energy and Engines” from IFP School and a Mechanical Engineering Diploma from SUPMECA Paris. She is a Research Engineer since 2012 at IFP Energies Nouvelles, a French Public Research Institute. She has published 6 papers in reputed journals and conferences and is author of 3 patents on engines and fuels suitability. Her research activity concerns mainly alternative fuels for aeronautics and automotive applications and fuels stability. She is working as a Teacher at IFP School and Ecole de Mines de Paris.

Abstract:

Among key challenges for alternative aviation fuels, the oxidation and thermal stability as well as polymers compatibility represent key concerns currently. Oxidation and thermal stability, or the lack of it, can cause jet fuels’ properties modification, filtersclogging and deposit formation in fuel systems, while polymer compatibility may be responsible of fuel leakage through polymer seals. In this experimental study, Petro Oxy and JFTOT tests were used to charachterize the oxidation and thermal stability of alternative jet fuels, respectively, while sorption, liquid permeability, ageing and mechanical tests were employed to test their compatibility with FVMQ, FKM and NBR polymers. Results showed a poor oxidation stability and polymer compatibility of Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene-Hydrotreated Esters and Fatty Acids (SPK-HEFA). In order to improve these properties, the infl uence of several cyclic molecules naturally present in conventional jet fuels was investigated, namely, xylene, tetralin and decalin. Sorption tests at ambiant showed a linear incrase of polymers weight with the cyclic molecules content, however, the slope was dependent on both polymer material and cyclic molecule. Th e addition of xylene increased almost linearly the oxidation stability of HEFA, while tetralin and decalin acted as oxidation inhibitors at low blending rate only. At low content, these molecules allowed to achieve good thermal stability as well. Accordingly, they represent good candidates to improve polymers compatibility as well as oxidation and thermal stability of SPK-HEFA. Th is work allowed to improve the knowledge on the infl uence of cyclic molecules on polymers compatibility and oxidation and thermal stability. It paves the way for the design of optimal formulations of upcoming alternative aviation fuels.