Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd International Congress and Expo on Biofuels & Bioenergy Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Day 2 :

OMICS International Biofuels-2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Vanya Marcia Duarte Pasa photo
Biography:

Prof. Vânya Márcia Duarte Pasa, PhD, senior researcher and professor at Federal University of Minas Gerais, is a specialist in the development of green technologies, especially biomaterials and biofuels. She is chemical engineer with PhD in Chemistry (UFMG-1995). She has been working at UFMG since 1996 and in the last 6 years she has developed researches about biodiesel production, new catalysis development, biokerosene, green diesel production and biomaterials derivate from recovered waste from fuels production chains. She has been the coordinator of LEC (Fuel Laboratory of UFMG – Federal University of Minas Gerais) since 2000. During this period, she has worked with Public Prosecution Service, ANP (Brazilian Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels), Petrobras S/A, CEPAL-UNESCO, GTZ-SENER – Mexico government, ACESITA/ARCELOR, FIAT-CHRYSLER, RIMA S/A and Boeing Research and Technology.

Abstract:

This research explores the exceptional use of waste minerals like eggshell and marble as precursors of sustainable catalysts to be used for biodiesel production. Macauba was used as promising and innovative triglyceride source. Th is palm tree is native in South America and presents high oil productivity (6000 kg/ha/year). Th e waste minerals were previously calcinated and characterized by X-ray diff raction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Each catalyst was heated in methanol to improve its effi ciency, aft er, the macauba oil was added. Th e reactions were performed at refl ux temperature and the reactants were vigorously stirred (700 rpm). During reaction, samples were periodically taken every half hour for a kinetics study. Aft er catalysts separation, all reaction products were cleaned with an ion-exchange resin and anhydrous sodium sulfate. Th e samples were analyzed by HPLC, NMR and GC. Th e raw materials and biodiesel were characterized by density, viscosity, water content and acid value. In addition, the oxidative stability, the maximum plugging point and the ester content of the biodiesels were analyzed. The conversions were high (70-94%) for 3 hours of reactions. Both residual solids seem to be robust and eff ective catalysts for macauba oil transesterifi cation, although Ca leaching was observed. After clean final step, the macauba biodiesel are in compliance with most of the quality standards.

Keynote Forum

Majid Hosseini

The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, USA

Keynote: A biorefinery approach to genetic manipulation of microalgae for biofuels production

Time : 09:30-10:00

OMICS International Biofuels-2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Majid Hosseini photo
Biography:

Dr. Hosseini has earned both his PhD and MS degrees in Chemical Engineering from the University of Akron, in Ohio, USA. He has also completed an MSE degree in Manufacturing Engineering at UTRGV in Texas, USA, and a Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran, Iran. Dr. Hosseini has edited book and book chapters, co-invented patents application technologies, and authored multiple peer reviewed research articles. He has served as a key speaker at national and international conferences and meetings and has been actively engaged in technology development. He is a persistent reviewer of leading international journals.

Abstract:

An ideal platform as an energy source, algal biofuels could potentially aid in the increasing demand for fuel and may be instrumental in slowing down the process of global warming while subsequently enhancing energy security. Genetic engineering may play a role in creating more effi cient microalgae biofuels and hence making it a viable component of the
energy mix. Improving algae lipid production can be achieved through the inclusion of genetic modifi cation. Th is alteration could not only yield better quality lipids far more suitable as fuel feedstock, but could also allow for the inclusion of lipids in non-traditional products such feed, food or industrial applications. Th ere is also an opportunity to utilize genetic engineering to facilitate the downstream processing of algal biomass into fuels in an integrated biorefi nery. Algae biotechnology has also witnessed the emergence of a fi eld that focuses on introducing genes or metabolic pathways that yield economically important components not found in natural varieties. Examples of such products derived from genetically modifi ed algae include recombinant proteins, fatty acid, hydrogen, ethanol, etc. However, genetic engineering does not come without uncertainties. In this work, the progress and challenges faced when implementing metabolic engineering and genetic manipulation in order to improve algal biomass as a platform for biofuel production will be discussed. A description of cutting edge algae transgenic research is provided. Th e latest developments in engineered microalgae species and biofuels production via carbon metabolism pathway modifi cation are also discussed. Additionally, the role that genetic engineering may play to enhance algal lipid and biofuels production and increase its competitiveness through a biorefi nery approach is presented.

  • Biodiesel | Biogas | Bioethanol
Location: Lorangerie II
Speaker

Chair

Vnya Mrcia Duarte Pasa

UFMG, Brazil

Speaker

Co-Chair

Majid Hosseini

The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Speaker
Biography:

Camila Carriço received her degree in Chemistry at the University of Santa Cruz (2009), a Master’s degree in Inorganic Chemistry at Federal University of Bahia (2012) and currently a doctoral student in Physical Chemistry at Federal University of Minas Gerais. Her experience is focused in renewable energy area, mainly with biodiesel production, glycerol utilization, biomass and industrial waste utilization for production of biomaterials (polyurethanes) and biopoliols. She also has expertise in synthesis and characterization of catalysts (HDL and zeolites).

Abstract:

Homogeneous catalysis is a common industrial process for biodiesel production and alkali-metal methoxides are oft en used as catalysts. Th ese catalysts allow for obtaining high conversion rates using reactions with low temperatures and times shorter than 1 hour. However, the drawbacks of their use are that these catalysts are unrecoverable, favor saponifi cation reactions and generate large volumes of aqueous effl uents with environmental impacts. Th e objective of this study was to synthesis and characterization of the Ca-Al mixed oxide produced from the thermal decomposition of a synthetic hydrocalumite. Th e produced mixed oxide was tested as a catalyst in the transesterifi cation reaction for biodiesel production using the following reagents: Refi ned soybean oil, crude macauba kernel oil, methanol and ethanol. Th e synthetic hydrocalumite and mixed oxide were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry-diff erential scanning calorimetry coupled with mass spectrometry, specifi c surface area, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption of CO2. Th e catalytic tests indicated that the methanol reactions exhibited more favorable kinetics than the ethanol reactions regardless of the oil type used (soybean or macauba). Ethanolysis produced better results for the higher molar mass oil (soybean) due to the effect of the ethanol cosolvent. Th e catalyst was effi cient for transesterifi cation, with conversions of 97% and 95% for soybean and macauba oil respectively, in 1.5 hour of reaction, at atmospheric pressure and refl ux temperature. Th e mixed oxide presented more favorable kinetics than the CaO, using soybean oil and methanol.

Speaker
Biography:

CRISTIANE ALMEIDA SCALDAFERRI, Ph.D student at Federal University of Minas Gerais. Master’s degree in Chemistry from Federal University of Minas Gerais (2015). Bachelor’s in Chemistry from Federal University of Minas Gerais (2012). Has experience in Chemistry, acting on the following subjects: Biofuels, Biomass and Heterogeneous Catalysis.

Abstract:

Drop-in fuels have attracted great interest for automotive and aeronautical use. In this work, bio-hydrocarbons were obtained from palm kernel oil (palmist oil) within the distillation range of diesel and jet fuel. Green fuels were produced through the hydrodeoxygenation of palmist fat and its hydrolyzed product by using Pd/C as a catalyst. Th e process is effi cient for hydrodeoxygenation with conversions of up to 96% aft er 5 hours of reaction at 10 bar of H2 pressures and 30°C, which are mild conditions compared with the majority of the processes described in the literature. The hydroprocessing products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, thermal analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The freezing temperatures of the biofuels were determined by DSC. Up to 5% deoxygenation products can be used in commercial jet fuel without compromising the cold fuel properties.

Break:
Networking and Refreshment Break 10:40-11:00 @ Foyer Versailles
Speaker
Biography:

Jeffrey C S Wu received his PhD in Chemical Engineering from the University of Pittsburgh, USA. Currently, he is serving as Associate Chair of the Chemical Engineering department, National Taiwan University. He is a member of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. He is author and coauthor of over 100 SCI journal papers, one book chapter and two textbooks of chemical industry and catalysis. He is the Editor of Catalysis Communications, and serves in editorial boards of Applied Catalysis A: General and Chemical Engineering Journal. He received many prestigious awards including Outstanding Cross-Sector Collaboration Award and 2nd National Industrial Innovation in 2012.

Abstract:

In this research, we transesterifi cated (1) triglycerides to synthesize biodiesel and; (2) its byproduct glycerol to form a more valuable chemical, glycerol 1,2-carbonate, using layered double hydroxides (LDHs), specifi cally Mg-Al LDH. We studied the diff erent Mg/ Al ratios in catalyst preparation, calcination temperatures of LDH, reaction temperatures, catalyst loadings and the molar ratios of dimethyl carbonate/glycerol, etc., which are critical factors in both transesterifi cation reactions. We had Mg-Al LDH coated on the 3mm spherical α-Al2O3 catalyst in the stirring packed-bed reactor. Mg-Al LDH was fi rst calcined and then rehydrated with
decarbonated water-glycerol solution to reconstruct the layer structure and also to protect the catalyst deactivation by air at the same time. In biodiesel synthesis, the yield reached 65.72% in 4 hours under 60oC, 87.45% in 3 hours under 100oC, when the methanol / soybean oil molar ratio was set to be 30, and 10wt% Mg/Al=5 LDH was used in the reaction. Th e glycerol transesterifi cation was carried out by dimethyl carbonate/glycerol molar ratio 16 with the existence of solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, using 10wt% Mg/Al=5 LDH on spherical α-Al2O3 at 95oC. Th e yield of glycerol 1,2-carbonate could reach up to 93.4% within 7.5 hours. When applying 10wt% catalyst of Mg/Al=5 LDH on spherical α-Al2O3 into the stirring packed-bed reactor, the yield of glycerol 1,2-carbonate reached to 80.17% within 11 hours under the residence time 22.5 hours, and dimethyl carbonate/glycerol molar ratio = 16 at 90oC.

Du Zexue

Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, China

Title: Etherification of biodiesel-derived glycerol with isobutene as fuel additives

Time : 11:20-11:40

Speaker
Biography:

Du Zexue, PhD, is a Professor, Chief Expert of SINOPEC Bio-liquid Fuel R&D Center and Vice-Director of the Foundation Research Division of SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing. He has been engaged in bio-energy research and development Since 2001. He has published more than 50 science and technical papers and holds 48 technology patents. In 2010, he took charge of fi nishing SINOPEC bio-liquid fuel development plan in fi ve, fi fteen and twenty-fi ve years respectively. The SRCA biodiesel processing, fi nished by his research group, is successfully being applied to the set of 60 kt/a biodiesel in 2010 and 100 kt/a biodiesel in 2010.

Abstract:

Glycerol is the main byproduct in biodiesel production by recycled restaurant greases that cannot be purifi ed as medicinal glycerol, because of its some harmful impurities, but can be transformed to valuable oxygenated fuel additives by etherifi cation with isobutene from C4 petrochemical fraction. The etherifi cation of glycerol with isobutene has been studied over diff erent acid catalysts under the diff rent conditions. A multivariate analysis has been used to assess the conditions (isobutene/glycerol molar ratio,reaction time and temperature) that yielded the best catalytic results in terms of glycerol conversion and selectivity towards the di- and triderivates (DTBG and TTBG), while minimizing the formation of the monoderivate compound (MTBG) and the extension of the butylene di/trimerization. Results proved, formation of MTBG , DTBG and TTBG, as a result of its etherifi cation with isobutene over acid catalysts. Glycerol fractional conversion values and di/tri-ether selectivity values approaching to 100% and 95% respectively were highly promising. Glycerol etherifi cation results obtained by using i-butene as the reactant, proved the importance of acidic strength of the catalyst, as well as the pore diff usion resistance on the catalytic performance. A special acid catalyst, with very high dispersity of acid sites, showed excellent performance in catalyzing glycerol with i-butene, and the selectivity value of the butylene di/trimerization was reduced to less than 5%. Laboratory tests using a blend containing the glyceryl di/tri-ethers in petroleum diesel showed reduction of pour and cloud points, indicating the potential of these ethers as bioadditives to automobile fuels. Results proved that etherifi cation of the by-product from the biodiesel of the recycled restaurant greases glycerol could be successfully achieved by using isobutene C4 petrochemical fraction, to improve the economics of biodiesel production.

Speaker
Biography:

M Mittelbach is a leading Scientist for the preparation and use of biofuels from fats and oils since over 30 years. He is Professor of Organic Chemistry at the University of Graz and has published over 120 peer reviewed papers, several book contributions and fi led several patents on biodiesel production technologies.

Abstract:

Especially for fats and oils with high content of saturated fatty acids, hydrotreatment is an alternative to trans-esterifi cation to obtain high quality alternative diesel fuels. A comparison of fuel properties of fatty acid methyl esters and hydrotreated fatty acid material is given. Heterogeneous catalysts, based on Ni and Co impregnated alumosilicates were prepared and used as catalysts for the hydrotreatment of animal fat as well as tall oil. Th e infl uence of reaction conditions like time, temperature and type of catalyst has been investigated. The aim of the study was a combined hydrotreatment as well as isomerization with high yield in one step. It could be shown that depending on the reaction conditions high quality products could be obtained from each feedstock, leading to products with low sulphur content and good cold temperature behaviour in one-step reaction. The catalysts could be reused successfully without signifi cant loss of activity. Even the rosin acids in tall oil, which cannot be converted by classical transesterifi cation reaction, were totally converted to valuable hydrocarbons by hydrotreatment. Advantages and disadvantages of both options for the conversion of fatty acid material, either transesterifi cation or hydrotreatment are compared and discussed.

Speaker
Biography:

Professor in the graduation (Biotechnology Engineering and Biological Science at UNESP) and post-graduation (UNESP and Ph.D Program in Bioenergy USP-UNICAMPUNESP) courses . He was Coordinator of graduation courses and chief of the Biological Science department at UNESP. Bachelors at Biological Science from UNESP (1986), Masters in Food Science from UNICAMP (1990), Doctorate at Food Engineering from UNICAMP (1995) and Associate Professor (2004) from UNESP. He has several papers and some books published in reputed international institutions in bioprocess acting on: Biofuels (ethanol) and Food Ingredients production (special sugars, biopolymers and yeast derivatives). Currently member of the executive board of IPBEN (UNESP Institute of Bioenergy) and consultant of some institutions and scientific journals.

Abstract:

The production of amylolytic and cellulolytic enzymes is being studied from Brazilian agribusiness residues such as bagasse and cane straw, cassava solid waste and wheat bran. Fungi of the genus Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Rhodotorula are used for the development of enzymatic bioprocess where formulations of culture media, submerged and solid-state cultures, physical-chemical parameters and type of inoculation are being evaluated. In a second step, some agricultural residues such as bagasse and cassava solid waste were hydrolysate by a mixture of produced and commercial enzymes to obtain fermentable sugars for second generation ethanol. In a third step, fermentations with S. cerevisiae are being conducted aiming the ethanol production using hydrolysed wastes and thereby testing the effi ciency of bioprocesses. Among the hydrolysis in progress is highlighted cassava solid waste which up to 60% (w/w) of fermentable sugars were obtained using a mixture of amylases and fi brinolytic enzymes. Th e alcoholic effi ciency superior at 80% has shown that some of the hydrolysates obtained are very promising for industrial application.

Speaker
Biography:

Xin Song has completed his PhD from Shandong University and Post-doctoral studies from Inha University School of Biological Engineering. He is the Professor of School of Life Science, Shandong University. He has published more than 30 papers in reputed journals and has 12 authorized patents.

Abstract:

Cellulolytic fungi Penicillium oxalicum produces diverse lignocellulolytic enzymes, and has been shown to be a promising cellulase producer. Given the dose-controlled or additive regulation of cellulase genes by the master regulator ClrB presented in P. oxalicum, and the synergistic transcriptional induction of cellulolytic genes in Bgl2-defi cient background, we constructed two overexpression cassettes gpdA(p)::clrB::ΔcreA-ptra and PDE_02864(p)::clrB::Δbgl2-bar, in which the clrB overexpression cassettes confer creA or bgl2 fl anking regions, respectively. Th ese overexpression cassettes for clrB were transformed sequentially into the pyrG mutant of P. oxalicum strain M12. Th e double mutant MRE1 (gpdA(p)::clrB::ΔcreA) and the quadruple mutant MRE2 (gpdA(p)::clrB::ΔcreAPDE_02864(p)::clrB::Δbgl2) were obtained, respectively and their cellulase expression abilities were separately evaluated on cellulose and wheat bran media. Although all these experiments were performed in fl asks, both MRE1 and MRE2 mutants showed more cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzyme activities and secretion abilities than parental strain M12. We also observed a signifi cant increase in the strain bearing the XlnRA871V allele (alanine-to-valine mutation) under cellulose conditions relative to the parental wild type strain
114-2. Th us, the overexpression cassette carrying PDE_02864-driven XlnRA871V using pyrG as selective marker was reconstructed and transformed into quadruple mutant MRE2, and might be feasible in further enhancing the cellulase expression. Th ese data signify that the dose-controlled regulation mechanisms of the cellulolytic regulators are a promising strategy for cellulolytic fungi to develop enzyme hyper-producers via the reconstruction of expression regulation network (RERN) technology.

Speaker
Biography:

Jaime Finguerut is a Chemical Engineer since 1975 and completed his Post-graduation studies at the University of São Paulo in Biochemical Engineering. He worked in the São Paulo Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB) developing a hybrid process for making biogas from sewage and domestic residues and also developed fermentation process to produce Single Cell Protein from low value petroleum fractions in Industrial Engineering Faculty (FEI) where he also teached Biochemical Engineering (Bioprocesses). From 1980, he started working for CTC- Sugarcane Technology Center, where he leaded engineers and other technicians on optimization of Brazilian industrial large scale process and currently developing its second generation technology for making sugarcane cellulosic ethanol.

Abstract:

Even Brazil being well known by its successful bioethanol production from sugarcane that make possible to replace a large proportion of the Otto cycle fuel used by a very large car fl eet most formed by fl exible fuel engines, since 1975, but, not many people know how this ethanol is being produced. In this paper, the main characteristics of the bioprocess that is being used in Brazil since the 30’s of last century and its evolution will be discussed. Th is process was intensifi ed by the use of a total cell recycle by means of centrifugation that separates selectively the larger particles and rejects the smaller, so favoring the yeasts to the bacteria. Also an acid shock was used which makes the competition with acid producing bacteria more favorable to the yeasts and also kills the newcomers, the contaminant yeasts that are not used to acid shocks. Th e feedstocks added to the process changes every day since sugarcane has to be harvested fresh and is not storable, and the sugarcane fi elds extends to a larger diameter around the plant (30 km) with diff erent types of soils and uneven local climates, as well as diff erent sugarcane varieties. These conditions makes its variation intrinsic to the business, so this process will adapt itself every day. Aft er many changes, the heterogeneous yeast population grows differently and only the most adapted ones will be enriched and recycled to the next cycle. Concentrating on all this makes a very high productivity, low fermentation time, high robustness and resilience, with low operational and fi xed costs.

Break:
Lunch Break 13:00-14:00 @ Vargas Restaurant

Alexey Tsyganenko

St. Petersburg State University, Russia

Title: FTIR spectroscopy for the studies of catalysts and catalytic reaction mechanisms

Time : 14:00-14:20

Speaker
Biography:

Alexey Tsyganenko is currently working as Full Professor of Physical Faculty of St. Petersburg State University and graduated from the same university in 1971. Since then, he worked at the same faculty, got his PhD in Molecular Physics in 1975 and gave lectures on molecular spectroscopy, adsorption and catalysis. From 1983, he is the Head of the research group of Infrared Spectroscopy in the Department of Photonics of V.A. Fock Research Institute of Physics. He Supervised 7 PhD works defended in Russia and two more in France. He participated at many international conferences in a dozen of countries and plenty in the former USSR. He gave lectures at the universities and scientifi c centers in the native country and abroad. In 1987, and later, he worked in the University of Caen, France as an Investigator or as Invited Professor. He participated in scientifi c researches in the Universities of Hamburg, Germany, Delft, Netherlands, the Balear Islands, Palma, Spain and Helsinki, Finland. In 2006, he served as Chairman of the Organizing Committee of International Symposium of Molecular Photonics, St. Petersburg from June 28th to July 2nd. His whole list of publications include more than 110 scientifi c papers in scientifi c journals. His main fi eld of scientifi c activity is spectroscopy of surface species, adsorbed molecules and mechanism of surface reactions. He contributed to the spectral studies of hydroxyl cover of oxides, acidic and basic sites of catalysts, lateral interaction between the adsorbed molecules and linkage isomerism of adsorbed species. He developed the methods of low temperature spectroscopy of dispersed ice or ozone adsorbed on solid surfaces, photocatalytic processes and technique of quantitative surface site characterization by the spectra of test molecules.

Abstract:

IR spectroscopy became a classical method of solid catalysts characterization. The paper deals with the advances in the studies of mechanisms, establishing the structure of intermediates and the nature of active sites of the reactions catalyzed by oxides and zeolites using FTIR spectroscopy at variable temperatures. Variable temperature spectroscopy broadens the number of test molecules for acid sites. At low temperatures, besides ammonia, pyridine and nitriles, we can use CO, NO, H2 or other molecules that do not adsorb at 300 K. Low-temperature adsorption of weak CH proton-donating molecules such as CHF3, enables one to characterize the basicity of surface electron-donating sites. Carrying out simultaneous measurements of spectra, pressure and temperatures one can obtain thermodynamic characteristics of surface species, while spectrokinetic data provide information about the height of activation barriers. To trap the unstable intermediates of catalytic reaction, we can follow spectra evolution with temperature and observe the chain of reactant transformations. In particular, the method can be applied to the studies of photocatalytic reactions, modeling the processes at the surface of atmospheric aerosol particles. Th e structure of intermediates can be clarifi ed using isotopic substitution and finally the detailed mechanism of catalytic processes could be established. Some adsorption products, however, cannot be stabilized at low temperatures, but arise at the surface as a result of thermal excitation. So, CO forms, with the cations in zeolites, two kinds of complexes. Besides the usual C-bonded structure the energetically less favorable O-bonded species arise and exist in thermodynamic equilibrium with usual form. Th ese species have the excess of energy and can be considered as an activated state, which can play a role of intermediate in catalytic reactions. Surface isomeric states were established for some other adsorbed species, such as cyanideion CN- produced by HCN dissociation. The linkage isomerism can be explained by an electrostatic model, or quantum mechanical calculations. Th e strength of surface sites can be aff ected by lateral interactions between the adsorbed species, which modifi es the catalytic properties of solids and shift the bands of test molecules, distorting the data on surface acidity. Co-adsorption of acidic and basic molecules leads to mutual enhancement of adsorption. Th is can be evidenced by protonation of bases, such as NH3 or 2,5-dimethylpyridine (DMP) on silanol groups in the presence of SO2 or NO2. Th is eff ect suggests an explanation of the promoting action of these gases in the reactions catalyzed by Brønsted sites. Besides the above eff ect of induced Brønsted acidity, induced basicity in the presence of adsorbed bases has also been detected spectroscopically. Lewis acidity can also be infl uenced by adsorbed acidic molecules. Th is eff ect was illustrated by CO adsorption on CaO pre-exposed to CO2, SO2, SO3, showing higher electron accepting ability of salts as compared with oxides. It is consistent with superacidity of oxides doped with (SO4)2- and explains much higher Lewis acidity of cationic sites in zeolites than that of oxides of the same elements. Quantitative spectral analysis of surface sites is not possible without the knowledge of absorption coefficients of test molecules. Quantum chemical calculations and electrostatic approach predict the correlation between the frequency shifts on adsorption and the absorption coeffi cients, in a fair agreement with the published data on CO adsorption on ionic surfaces.

  • Biogas
Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Xiaoming Bao is a professor and doctoral supervisor in State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, a committee member of Chinese Society for Microbiology and Committee on universal education. Her major scientific interests are in the field of Metabolic Engineering, Molecular Biology, and Yeast Physiology. She Has undertaken or participated more than 40 national and provincial projects and cooperated with several famous companys, such as Novozymes, DSM, Chemtex, and so on. Published about 100 papers in influential journals, including Metabolic Engineering, Bioresource Technology, and FEMS yeast research, etc

Abstract:

The cost-effective and sustainable production of second-generation bioethanol, which made from lignocellulosic materials, must resolve two problems: cofermenting xylose with glucose and enhancing strain tolerance to lignocellulosic inhibitors. In our recent work, a robust diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BSIF was used as chassis cell. The novel Ru-xylA gene (US 8586336 B2) that expressed high xylose isomerase activity in S. cerevisiae and the MGT05196(N360F) gene (CN 104263739A) encoding a transporter that specifically transported xylose without any glucose-inhibition, were introduced into strain BSIF, as well as overexpressed endogenous XKS1 and genes of pentose phosphate pathway, etc. These rationally designed genetic modifications combined with alternant evolution in xylose and leach liquor of pretreated corn stover (PCS) endowed excellent xylose fermentation and inhibitor resistant capacity to the final resulting strain LF1 (CN 105199976A). The ethanol yield and specific xylose consumption rate of LF1 were 0.447 g g-1 and 1.073 g g-1 h-1 in fermentation of 40 g L-1 xylose, and were 0.474 g g-1 and 1.751 g g-1 h-1 in fermentation with mixed sugar (80 g L-1 glucose and 40 g L-1 xylose). In the fermentation of PCS hydrolysate, LF1 consumed 77 g L-1 glucose and 36 g L-1 xylose in 40 h with an ethanol yield of 0.411 g g-1, highlighting its potential use in second-generation bioethanol production. More genetic and evolutionary measures are being taken to make strain LF1 more suitable to producing second-generation bioethanol from various lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

Speaker
Biography:

Jordan Godwin is a Biofuels Analyst for Platts in Houston, Texas. He has covered biofuels pricing, trends and policies since 2012, originally serving as a price reporter on the U.S. ethanol, biodiesel and RINs markets for two years before moving over to the Platts Analytics team. His main areas of focus include supply/demand forecasts, tracking global trade flows and other trends in the biofuels industries, with a key focus on North American, Asian and African markets. Prior to joining Platts, he served as a journalist for two years after receiving his Bachelor of Journalism for the University of Texas at Austin in 2010

Abstract:

With so much uncertainty plaguing global biofuels markets in 2015, producers, investors, traders and market participants of all backgrounds need answers on what direction the industry takes in 2016. How has the historic oil decline affected the biofuels outlook in the past six months, and what does it mean for the industry moving forward? Will policy setbacks in the US and UK continue to stunt biofuel industry growth in 2016? How can the markets thrive with explosively volatile feedstock agriculture prices dragging margins on for a rollercoaster ride? Will Asian and Middle Eastern markets continue to emerge as major consumers in 2016 and if so, how can Western holders capitalize? Platts offers answers to all of these questions with our vast and in-depth global biofuels market coverage. For nearly three years, I worked as a price reporter with an ear on the ground as US ethanol markets shifted all over the place, driven by wild corn prices and federal government policy swings. Now, my mission as a Biofuels Analyst is to provide insight into both the status quo in the global biofuels picture as well as the future of the markets, utilizing specific historical trends and dozens of producer margin models.

Speaker
Biography:

Muhammad Asif Latif joined the AWMC in July 2012 as a PhD student researching the field of environmental engineering, particularly of the nutrients recovery in wastewater systems using anaerobic digestion approach. Asif completed his honors degree in agricultural engineering at the University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF) Pakistan (2004). He worked with some textile companies in Pakistan for wastewater treatment before joining the Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Malaysia, where he graduated in 2011 with a degree of Masters of Engineering in Environmental Engineering. Before joining UQ Asif also worked at Didaktik Engineering Works Malaysia as a design engineer, where he managed the R&D, biogas production and metering system design, process control and automation, project costing, project management and 3D designing of parts and instruments.

Abstract:

Lab scale anaerobic digesters were deployed to enhance in-reactor P solubility in a semi-continuous AD process at low pH conditions. The experiment was setup for five pH ranges of 7, 6.5, 6.0, 5.5 and 5.0 by applying a sludge retention time of 48 days (HRT 12days) at each pH condition. The pH was controlled and maintained automatically using PLC interface. Significant increase in soluble P (84% of total P) was observed between pH 5-5.5 and 50-62% of total P was released between pH 6-6.5. Whereas, control reactor (pH 7) showed a 43% release of total P. While methane yield was decreased at low pH but it did not affect the methane production rate but the extent of conversion of the residual organic matter into biogas. Methane loss at pH 6.5, 6, 5.5 and 5 was 20, 28, 29 and 38% respectively. Figure 1 shows the methane yield and concentration of soluble P at each pH compared to control. COD removal and VS removal were also affected in the same manner as methane yield at low pH. Total VFA and SCOD were respectively increased from 40 to 850 mg L-1 and 600 mg L-1 to 2700 mg L-1 from pH 7 to 5. This increase in the concentration of soluble organics is addressed due to an imbalance in the equilibrium between acidogenesis and methanogenesis where, production of intermediate products (butyric and propionic acids) was higher than their conversion into acetate. A post AD analysis of digested sludges at different pH conditions was also carried out via biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. BMP of low pH sludges have shown higher methane production than control. Low pH is suggested to be a suitable option which can reduce overhauling frequency, reactor shutdown and acid flushing to reduce precipitants.

Speaker
Biography:

Maria Montingelli is a PhD student in Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering at the Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. She is graduated as Management Engineer at the Polytechnic of Bari, (Bari, Italy), where she achieved a Master Degree in Management Engineering as well. She is part of the Biofuel and Bioenergy Research Group in Dublin City University and her research is mainly focused on biogas production systems by exploiting seaweed as biomass.

Abstract:

Recently, the European Commission has opened a discussion about limiting first generation food based biofuels in favour of advanced biofuels, such as those sourced from seaweed. It has been proposed to set at least at 2.5% of renewable energy supply in transport (RES-T) the use of this kind of biofuels. The main reason is to limit the broad uncertainty in estimates of indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions. In this context, brown seaweed represent a valuable solution as they lack of lignin and have low cellulose content, thus they are particularly suitable for degradation processes such as anaerobic digestion (AD). The biogas produced through AD can then be upgraded to biomethane, which can be introduced into the gas grid or used as a transport fuel. Brown seaweed such as Laminaria spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum were co-digested with digested sewage sludge at a mesophilic temperature of 38°C and for a retention time of 14 days. The effects of a beating pretreatment in terms of pretreatment time (5-10-15 min) and changes in the volatile solids (VS) concentration (1-2.5-4%) from seaweed on methane production were investigated through a response surface methodology (RSM). Laminaria spp. showed a maximum methane yield of 272 mL CH4 g-1 VS when the pretreatment time was set at 10 min and a VS concentration of 2.5% was used. In the case of Ascophyllum nodosum, the best yield of 169 mL CH4 g-1 VS was found at the maximum pretreatment time tested of 15 min and at the minimum concentration of VS.

Speaker
Biography:

The main author is Mechanical Engineer of the Engineering Faculty at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. This work presents the results of his Master's thesis in Energy. The author is an expert in mechanical design for end users and real applications. Secondary author is professor-researcher at the Engineering Faculty and his research is based on the Production and use of biofuels . The author is Chemical Engineer, Masters and Doctorate degree in Engineering at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Her doctoral studies were in a program between Germany, the Netherlands and Mexico. Currently, she has 12 international publications on the subject of biogas.

Abstract:

A biogas plant at semi-industrial level was installed to one of the 23 restaurants of University City. The biogas substitutes 6% of the total heat energy consumption of the restaurant. The crushing machine investment represented 80% of the total investment cost of the biogas plant. The efficiency of the anaerobic degradation process depends on an efficient system of crushing. For the operation of the biogas plant were needed 3 people, because the crushing of organic waste could take up to 3 hours. 50 kg/day of organic matter are processed to reduce their size from 25 to 3cm. The crushing time represented around of 90% of work in the plant. In Mexico, the crushing machine must to be imported and the high cost reduces the economic viability of the plant, so we decided to design and construct a prototype of crushing machine with the following characteristics: size reduction by cutting with engine power of 1.5 Hp, speed of 425 rpm, manufacture material of stainless steel 304, 3 rotors and 3 blades coupled to the rotor; and 2 fixed blades in the crushing chamber. This new crushing machine decreased its investment in 95% of the cost of a imported machine. This crushing machine and its components are in the process of obtaining a patent. The optimum operation of the crushing machine reduced the hydraulic residence time in the hydrolysis and methanogenesis process from 30 to 18 days. Therefore also helps to reduce the size of the digester reactor for future designs for organic waste anaerobic treatment of a restaurant.

Speaker
Biography:

Mr.Rajan Sharma is currently working as aAssistant Prof. in Uttaranchal University ,Dehradun , India .He is pursuing Ph.D from University of Petroleum and Energy Studies ,Dehradun Uttrakhand India . He has been quality control officer in Cadila Pharma ltd from Jan 2011 to March 2012 .He worked as a senior technical and as a research associate in University of petroleum &energy studies on diffrent biogas project funded by M.N.R.E Govt of India from March 2012 to March 2014. .His research interest includes Renewable energy,biofuels from different biomass .

Abstract:

Lignocelluloses are often a major or sometimes the sole components of different waste streams from various industries, forestry, agriculture and municipalities. Hydrolysis of these materials is the first step for either digestion to biogas (methane). However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses with no pre-treatment is usually not so effective because of high stability of the materials to enzymatic or bacterial attacks. The reason for improved rate of hydrolysis by removal of lignin might be related to a better surface accessibility for enzymes by increasing the population of pores after removing of lignin. We used acid, alkali, thermal methods for pre-treatment of jatropha deoiled cake, treated jatropha cake biomass was anaerobic ally digested to biogas in lab scale stirred tank bioreactor(figure1) at fixed conditions as shown in table 1. The present work deal with different pre-treatment’s method for delignification of jatropha deoiled cake at different conc of acid ,alkali for different interval of time . Further, as per analysis it was seen that alkaline hydrolysis can be a good method for delignification of jatropha deoiled cake as compare to acid and thermal methods. However, the yield of methane content in biogas obtained was found maximum after acid treated biomass (85.72% methane) as compared to alkaline treated biomass (81.12% methane)and thermal treated biomass (79.36%methane).

Speaker
Biography:

Viridiana Ferreira-Leitão is Senior Researcher at Biocatalysis Laboratory at the National Institute of Technology, research unit of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. She is also Professor at the Graduation Program in Biochemistry at the Chemistry Institute at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Her research interests involve: enzymatic conversion of renewable substrates into chemicals, lignocellulose processing for ethanol or chemicals production, the use of microorganisms and enzymes as catalysts in hydrolytic or oxidative reactions and biological hydrogen production. Additionally, she published many scientific papers in indexed journals and several books chapters.

Abstract:

Hydrogen (H2) is an attractive and valuable gas that might be employed in different industries, either as reactant or as combustible. The combustion of this fuel produces water as its only product and generates 142 kJ.g-1, which is almost three-fold higher than fossil fuels. There are several process to obtain hydrogen, amongst which biological production can be highlighted, since it could be performed at atmospheric pressures, room temperatures and applying waste materials as feedstock. Hemicellulose fraction derived from lignocellulosic biomass (C5 fraction), palm oil mill effluent (POME) and residual glycerin from biodiesel production are industrial wastes, produced in a large quantities, that have been considered promising substrates for H2 production via anaerobic fermentation. Therefore, these three different waste materials were tested as substrates for biological hydrogen (BioH2) production, using pretreated anaerobic sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant as inoculum (35°C, pH 5.5). The yields of BioH2 obtained were: 4,45 molH2/molcarbohydrate , 2,39 molH2/gCOD and 2,2 molH2/molglycerin, for C5 fraction, POME and residual glycerin, respectively, after 24 h of anaerobic fermentation. These results show that the use of waste materials allows promising yiels of hydrogen, leading to descentralized renewable energy production, feedstock cost reduction and waste accumulation avoidance.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Souza is a Professor at the Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo where she leads research on sugarcane genomics, biotechnology and bioinformatics. Dr. Glaucia Souza is the President of FAPESP Bioenergy Program (BIOEN). BIOEN aims at articulating public and private R&D, in academic and industrial laboratories, to advance and apply knowledge in fields related to bioenergy. Research ranges from biomass production and processing to biofuel technologies, biorefineries and sustainability. Dr. Souza led the SCOPE Bioenergy & Sustainability project, a global assessment of current status and latest developments on bioenergy production and use to produce policy recommendations (http://bioenfapesp.org).

Abstract:

Modern bioenergy in the form of liquid biofuels, bioelectricity, biogas, and more efficient heat contributes to about 3.5% of the world’s energy matrix. Bioenergy production and use is expected to increase to about 20-25% by 2050 as part of a large global effort to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and enable sustainable development. For road transportation it is expected that biofuels will contribute with almost 30% of the demand and in the aviation sector a fast transition to drop-in biofuels is planned without the possibility of using electricity and natural gas as substitutes. A wide-array of technological pathways using biomass as feedstock has been developed and is maturing with options to substitute petrochemical routes. Additionally, our growing knowledge of energy plants and microbes is creating new options to improve yields. The biomass industry will have an increasingly important role for bioproducts in an emerging bioeconomy geared towards sustainable practices. A global assessment of bioenergy sustainability was recently conducted under the aegis of SCOPE that evaluated the potential expansion of bioenergy and its impacts and benefits. Led by researchers from FAPESP Bioenergy Program (BIOEN) with contributions from 137 experts in 24 countries, the study concluded that there is enough land for bioenergy expansion without competition for food or other needs, and that this expansion is most likely to take place in Latin America and Africa, contributing to social and economic development (http://bioenfapesp.org/scopebioenergy/index.php). Brazil, in its sugarcane ethanol program, has seen an astounding number of new technological developments in the context of sustainability. The speaker will consider environmental security, food security, energy security and improvement of livelihoods, discuss recent scientific findings on biotechnology for bioenergy expansion and how the bioethanol first generation environment can contribute for second generation biofuels development.

Speaker
Biography:

Simone Nakanishi is a Biochemical Engineer, Master in Biotechnology at University of São Paulo in collaboration with the Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua - México (Biomass Conversion for Membrane production, 2010) and a PhD student at University of São Paulo working with lignocellulosic biomass conversion (pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and lignin characterization) as raw materials for second-generation ethanol and high value-added products.

Abstract:

Two pretreatment conditions were performed in pilot scale (350 L) in order to provide information about the influence of different heating and stirring system between bench and pilote scale, namely (A5 - 30 min, 130°C, 1.5% w/v NaOH, 0.15% w/w AQ and A7 - 30 min, 170°C and 1.5% w/v NaOH, 0,15% w/w AQ). The influence of this scale up on mass yield, solubilization rates and enzymatic conversion was analyzed in order to choose the pretreatment condition that provide the high glucose yield liquor for second-generation ethanol production. These conditions were elected from a 23 experimental design. Experiments without anthraquinone (WAQ) were also performed. The anthraquinone addition did not leads to substantial cellulose preservation in the laboratory scale. However in pilot-scale the AQ addition resulted in 67.4% and 28.5% of cellulose preservation for reactions at 130°C and 170°C respectively in relation to those studies without it addition. Since diffusion operates a huge influence on anthraquinone action, the most efficient heating system and agitation of pilot scale in relation to laboratory scale were probably the determining factors for the more effective performance. Temperature also seems to have maximal effect on AQ pretreatments performed in pilot scale, where at lower temperature ranges (130°C) the preservation of cellulose was favored in relation to experiments at 170°C. The scale-up was considered successfully made and considering the pretreatment mass yield and enzymatic conversion the condition named A5 (130°C, 30 min, 1.5% (w/v), 0.15% (w/w) AQ) was chosen as the best one resulting in 293 kg of glucose from 1 ton of raw sugarcane bagasse (extrapolating pilote results).

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Session Introduction

Majid Hosseini

1The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Title: Technical challenges of fermentative bio-hydrogen production from biomass
Speaker
Biography:

Majid Hosseini has earned both his PhD and MS degrees in Chemical Engineering from The University of Akron, Ohio, United States. He has also completed his Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering at Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. His research interests, expertise and experiences are very diverse, ranging from biofuels and renewable energy to industrial biotechnology, bioprocess engineering and developement, sustainability, bio/nanotechnology, intelligent polymers and coatings, micro/encapsulation and nanoparticles for biomedical applications. He has been actively engaged in various fields of biofuels & bioenergy, sustainability, polymers, bio/nanotechnology, and related technology development both in industry and academia. He has served as a Key Speaker at multiple national and international conferences and meetings. He is the Editor of a book published by Springer in 2016 entitled “Industrial Applications for Intelligent Polymers and Coatings”, which is a comprehensive collaboration on intelligent polymers and coatings for industrial applications by worldwide researchers and specialists. Currently, he serves as the Editor of a handbook scheduled for publication by Elsevier in May 2017. He is a persistent reviewer of numerous leading international journals, has published high caliber research articles and book chapters and co-invented US and international patent application technologies. He has been a Member of several professional bodies in the USA including: The New York Academy of Sciences, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AICHE), AICHE-Institute for Sustainability, AICHE-SBE (Society of Biological Engineering), Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS), International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE), AICHE-Sustainable Engineering Forum, AICHE-Pharmaceutical Discovery, Development and Manufacturing Forum and The National Society of Collegiate Scholars.

Abstract:

A hydrogen production approach that shows great potential and may prove to be a key to establishing a hydrogen based economy is one that is centered on fermentation process technologies. The systems that rely upon fermentation utilize microorganisms (bacteria) that generate hydrogen during the decomposition of organic matter. Refined sugars, waste water streams and certain sources of raw biomass can all be used as organic matter in this process. Hydrogen can be generated directly from microbes in direct hydrogen fermentation from the decomposition of complex molecules via various pathways, where selected pathway byproducts of some are combined with enzymes. Certain challenges that face fermentation systems, such as how to increase bio-hydrogen production rates and how to maximize output without increasing the amount of organic matter used, must be addressed prior to the process becoming commercially viable. In this work, technical challenges of fermentative bio-hydrogen production from various biomass sources, optimization of critical process parameters and how cost effective biomass sources can be utilized, are discussed. Additionally, potential industrial applications, limitations and challenges for scale up, recent progress in bioreactor development alongside designing and optimizing systems will be covered. To conclude, challenges that are specific to the biomass used in fermentative bio-hydrogen production, thoughts on further development with examples that highlight the relevant processes and future outlook are presented

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Hosseini has earned both his PhD and MS degrees in Chemical Engineering from the University of Akron, in Ohio, USA. He has also completed an MSE degree in Manufacturing Engineering at UTRGV in Texas, USA, and a Bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran, Iran. Dr. Hosseini has edited book and book chapters, co-invented patents application technologies, and authored multiple peer reviewed research articles. He has served as a key speaker at national and international conferences and meetings and has been actively engaged in technology development. He is a persistent reviewer of leading international journals.

Abstract:

A hydrogen production approach that shows great potential and may prove to be a key to establishing a hydrogen based economy is one that is centered on fermentation process technologies. The systems that rely upon fermentation utilize microorganisms (bacteria) that generate hydrogen during the decomposition of organic matter. Refined sugars, waste water streams and certain sources of raw biomass can all be used as organic matter in this process. Hydrogen can be generated directly from microbes in direct hydrogen fermentation from the decomposition of complex molecules via various pathways, where selected pathway byproducts of some are combined with enzymes. Certain challenges that face fermentation systems, such as how to increase bio-hydrogen production rates and how to maximize output without increasing the amount of organic matter used, must be addressed prior to the process becoming commercially viable. In this work, technical challenges of fermentative bio-hydrogen production from various biomass sources, optimization of critical process parameters and how cost effective biomass sources can be utilized, are discussed. Additionally, potential industrial applications, limitations and challenges for scale up, recent progress in bioreactor development alongside designing and optimizing systems will be covered. To conclude, challenges that are specific to the biomass used in fermentative bio-hydrogen production, thoughts on further development with examples that highlight the relevant processes and future outlook are presented.