Title: Green technology for biodiesel: Production of methyl esters from macauba oil over egg shell and marble heterogeneous catalysts
Biography: Vanya Marcia Duarte Pasa
This research explores the exceptional use of waste minerals like eggshell and marble as precursors of sustainable catalysts to be used for biodiesel production. Macauba was used as promising and innovative triglyceride source. Th is palm tree is native in South America and presents high oil productivity (6000 kg/ha/year). Th e waste minerals were previously calcinated and characterized by X-ray diff raction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Each catalyst was heated in methanol to improve its effi ciency, aft er, the macauba oil was added. Th e reactions were performed at refl ux temperature and the reactants were vigorously stirred (700 rpm). During reaction, samples were periodically taken every half hour for a kinetics study. Aft er catalysts separation, all reaction products were cleaned with an ion-exchange resin and anhydrous sodium sulfate. Th e samples were analyzed by HPLC, NMR and GC. Th e raw materials and biodiesel were characterized by density, viscosity, water content and acid value. In addition, the oxidative stability, the maximum plugging point and the ester content of the biodiesels were analyzed. The conversions were high (70-94%) for 3 hours of reactions. Both residual solids seem to be robust and eff ective catalysts for macauba oil transesterifi cation, although Ca leaching was observed. After clean final step, the macauba biodiesel are in compliance with most of the quality standards.