Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 6th World Congress on Biofuels and Bioenergy London, UK.

Day 2 :

OMICS International Biofuels Congress 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Nallusamy Sivakumar photo
Biography:

Nallusamy Sivakumar has expertise in microbial fermentation. His areas of research interests are enzyme production, bioenergy, biofuel and bioprocessing, He is working on the possible utilization of different waste materials as alternative, cheap and renewable substrates for the production of microbial enzymes and other value added products. He established the bioprocess lab in Sultan Qaboos University and supervising the team of students working in bioprocessing. He is also working on bioactive compounds. In this, he is concentrating on the effect of different plant extracts and their essential oils on pathogenic bacteria and their possible mode of action. He also has a long teaching career,

Abstract:

Waste paper is considered as one of the major components of municipal and industrial wastes and has the potential to be used as an excellent alternative feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, the effect of various pretreatments on efficient hydrolysis of waste office paper and newspaper into sugars and subsequent production of ethanol through fermentation was studied. The shredded papers were soaked in deionized water (5 % w/v), milled and dried at 60° C for 24 h. The dry matter was then milled again to remove most physical barriers of cellulose structure. The prepared waste papers were subjected to various pretreatments using sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 0.1, 0.5 and 1% (v/v). Pretreatment with H2O2 (0.5 % v/v) at 121°C for 30 min was considered as the most effective method as it increased the available cellulose, produced a high sugar yield, high delignification and less inhibitors formation. The effect of single (37 FPU/g solids) and two enzyme mixture (37 FPU + 25 CBU/g solids) was carried out using 2% (w/v) solid loadings. The solid loadings experiment was done by loading 1-4% (w/v) solids with 37 FPU + 25 CBU/g solids of enzyme loadings. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated office paper and newspaper with 3% solid loadings resulted in the sugar yield of 23.48 and 13.12 g/L with hydrolysis efficiency of 91.8 and 79.6 %, respectively. Further, the hydrolysates of office paper and newspaper were used as a substrate to produce ethanol through fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted about 11.15 and 6.65 g/L with the productivity of 0.32 and 0.28 (g ethanol/L/h), respectively. Thus, the improved yields achieved through the pretreatment with 0.5% H2O2 and subsequent ethanol production suggested that the wastepaper could be used as a potential feedstock for bioethanol production.

 

Recent Publications:

  1. Al-Siyabi B, Gujarathi AM, Sivakumar N (2017) Harmonic Multi-objective Differential Evolution Approach for Multi-objective Optimization of Fed-Batch Bioreactor. Materials and manufacturing processes http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 10426914. 2017.1279308.
  2. Annamalai N, Sivakumar N (2016) Production of polyhydroxybutyrate from wheat bran hydrolysate. Journal of Biotechnology 237: 13–17.
  3. Aishwarya R, Sivakumar N, Reginald V (2016) Fish waste-Potential low cost substrate for bacterial protease production: A brief review. The Open Biotechnology Journal 10: 335-341.
  4. Sivakumar N, Al Zadjali A, Al Bahry S, Elshafie A and Eltayeb EA (2016) Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis from compost. African Journal of Biotechnology 15:  2434-2446.
  5. L-Kharousi M, Sivakumar N, Elshafie A (2015) Characterization of cellulase enzyme produced by Chaetomium sp. isolated from books and archives, Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 9: 52-60.

Break: Networking and Refreshments Break 10:40-11:00
OMICS International Biofuels Congress 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Aurangzeb Akram photo
Biography:

Engr. Dr. Aurangzeb Akram is performing academic research in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology Imperial College London United Kingdom, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Denmark, NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology Pakistan and the Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology Faculty of Engineering and Technology University of the Punjab Pakistan and pursuing his career in academics, research and government advisory services. He is performing reviews and publishing of research work for peer-reviewed international scientific journals and is a member of different international scientific societies. Award lecture is a communication about the latest development in the field of renewable energy, membrane technology, biomass, bioreactor engineering and environmental biotechnology processes. His research interest is on the topics of energy and fuels, environmental sustainability and the relevant treatment processes and performing research on novel membrane based bioengineering design for carbon decontamination of industrial and municipal effluents for discharge into fresh water streams using anaerobic consortium producing biofuel.

Abstract:

High strength wastewaters including effluents from distillery, brewery, sugar and maize products industries require treatment before discharge into aquatic environment. For carbon decontamination of food and beverage industries effluents, membrane bioreactors are being developed to decouple the solid retention time from the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and to produce solids free better quality effluents while the use of anaerobic biomass reduces the cost of excessive sludge disposal and produces methane as a source of renewable energy1. Three litres submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) was used to study the effects of organic shock loads in the form of step change in feed strengths and alkalinity to different magnitudes (two and five times) at constant HRT to obtain an insight into microbial responses and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal performance. The SAMBR was able to handle the high sludge loading rate (0.8 gCOD gVSS-1 l-1) and the organic loading rate (9.6 gCOD l-1 d-1) with 90 % COD removal at high gas sparging rate (3m-3 m-2 h-1) due to a uniform shear force. Settled and attached growth biomass inside SAMBR at low gas sparging rate (1.2 m-3 m-2 h-1) survived an organic shock load of 20 gCOD l-1 (five times the steady state concentration) both in the presence and absence of moderate sodium toxicity (4.5 gNa+ l-1)4. Acetate and propionate were the two most significant volatile fatty acids (VFAs) appeared at high substrate concentration, whereas butyrate appeared only at relatively low pH. Formate appeared for biomass acclimatised for above neutral pH and disappeared at low pH for similar flocs morphology3. Substrate degradation depends upon active biomass and not on flow regime inside the bioreactor. However VFAs and soluble microbial products (SMPs) retention at low shear conditions (1.2 m-3 m-2 h-1) confirm the concept of electrostatic “gel layer” formation2. Based on the results of the specific methanogenic activity using batch assays a larger amount of methane production potential is observed in SAMBR at higher loading rate.

Figure:  Schematic of SAMBR

Key words: Membrane bioreactor, organic loading rate, sludge loading rate, sodium toxicity, gel layer, renewable energy.

Recent Publications:

  1. Al-Siyabi B, Gujarathi AM, Sivakumar N (2017) Harmonic Multi-objective Differential Evolution Approach for Multi-objective Optimization of Fed-Batch Bioreactor. Materials and manufacturing processes http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 10426914. 2017.1279308.
  2. Annamalai N, Sivakumar N (2016) Production of polyhydroxybutyrate from wheat bran hydrolysate. Journal of Biotechnology 237: 13–17.
  3. Aishwarya R, Sivakumar N, Reginald V (2016) Fish waste-Potential low cost substrate for bacterial protease production: A brief review. The Open Biotechnology Journal 10: 335-341.
  4. Sivakumar N, Al Zadjali A, Al Bahry S, Elshafie A and Eltayeb EA (2016) Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis from compost. African Journal of Biotechnology 15:  2434-2446.
  5. AL-Kharousi M, Sivakumar N, Elshafie A (2015) Characterization of cellulase enzyme produced by Chaetomium sp. isolated from books and archives, Eurasian Journal of Biosciences 9: 52-60

  • Track 4: Biomass
    Track 5:Biogas
    Track 6&7: Bioethanol &Biodiesel
    Track 14: Bioenergy Conversion & Applications
    Track 16: Biomass feed stocks for renewable energy generation
    Track 19: Process for Bioenergy

Session Introduction

Mirella ELKADI

The Petroleum Institute Campus, UAE

Title: Speciation study of bioethanol from dates (HPLC-ICP-MS) linked to molecular sieve and sodium borohydride treatment

Time : 11:40-12:00

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Mirella Elkadi is an Associate Professor in the Department of Chemistry at the Petroleum Institute. She is experienced in essential instrumental techniques including NMR, GC, IR and mass spectroscopy. Her recent interests are biofuels and alternative sources of energy.

Abstract:

The prospect of producing bioethanol from biomass available locally is in the interest of widespread sustainable growth and development.   The novelty of our study focused on maximising the recovery and purity of bioethanol from dates by subjecting the process to specialised treatment for removal of water and toxic species. Bioethanol production from dates of the Fard and Khalas cultivars is relatively unexplored, and was achieved by adopting standard protocol of thermal sugar extraction followed by fermentation and distillation. Water de-contamination of the product utilising molecular sieve treatment led to enhanced purity of bioethanol (98%). Co-treatment with sodium borohydride resulted in reduced levels of toxic species Cr3+, Cr6+ and As3+ by about 20%. The speciation study was conducted using hybrid liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A built-in dynamic reaction cell facilitated detection of the species of interest. Elemental profiling of bioethanol samples employing standard ICP-MS demonstrated that the levels of trace elements were higher in general for the Fard dates. Our research is significant from the perspective of deploying surplus dates for biofuel production to obviate competition for arable land.  The study could make a useful contribution to ongoing research associated with climate change.  

Recent Publications:

  1. Mirella Elkadi, Afrah Khamis, Avin Pillay, Nannan Li, Sasi Stephen Factors affecting organic yield, reaction mechanisms and elemental toxicity (ICP-MS) of bioethanol derivative from dates (fard/khalas cultivars) and century plant (Agave americana). International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869 (O) 2454-4698 (P), Volume-6, Issue-2, October 2016.
  2. Avin Pillay, Nannan Li, Mirella Elkadi, Abhijeet Raj and Afrah Khamis Alamri "Bioethanol from greywater dates to fuel desalination plants" Canadian Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 3751-3753, February 2016. Online ISSN: 1920-3853; Print ISSN: 1715-9997
  3. N. Li, A.E. Pillay, M. Elkadi and S. Stephen “Characterization of Trace Toxic Chemical Species: [Cr3+/Cr6+] and [As3+/As5+] In Alternative Fuel and Isolated By-Products Using HPLC-ICP-MS” International Journal of Advanced Research in Chemical Science (IJARCS) vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 44-50, June 2015
  1. N. Li, M. Elkadi, A.E. Pillay and S. Stephen “Catalytic Modification in Biofuel Transesterification to Control Reaction Yield and Metal Retention–A Study by Hyphenated Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry” International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 54-58, May 2015.
  1. M. Elkadi, A. E. Pillay , J. Manuel, M. Z. Khan, S. Stephen and A. Molki , “Sustainability study on heavy metal uptake in neem biodiesel using selective catalytic preparation and hyphenated mass spectrometry”, Sustainability, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 2413-2423, 2014.

 

Andrés Moreno

University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Spain

Title: Biofuel precursors from food wastes using microwaves radiation

Time : 12:00-12:20

Speaker
Biography:

Andrés Moreno began their academic and research career in University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) getting PhD degree in Organic Chemistry in 1990. He carried out postdoctoral studies at University of Oxford and Univ. Paris-Sud. Assistant Professor in Organic Chemistry in 1995. Several stays as visitant professor at Univ. of Oxford, also short stays at “Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence of York” & Univ. of Rome I. In 2015, he obtain a Full Professor position by Spanish Educational Government. The main lines of his research are: Application of Microwave Radiation in organic synthesis. Use of Solid Supports and not pollutants oxidizers in reactions catalysed by acids, Chemistry of Food. Structural Identification of its components by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (multinuclear and qNMR), Synthesis and Characterization of Biofuel precursors from Agricultural Wastes.

Abstract:

Biomass technologies. Microwave radiation, a green and environmental friendly energy, for getting biofuel precursors from agricultural wastes. Biomass waste is becoming increasingly recognised as a good feedstock and carbon source with different components and applications. Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin. One example of this type of feedstock is the agro-food waste from the external part of melon rind, which is considered in this work as a potential bio-resource with several applications. Indeed, this material is fairly rich in carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and fatty acids. The carbohydrate fraction of melon rind is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectin, with glucose, xylose and galactose being the major monosaccharides present. Typically, 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural (5-HMF) is obtained by the dehydration of monosaccharides (hexoses such as glucose or fructose) at high temperature using an acid catalyst in aqueous solution, leading to levulinic acid (LA) and formic acid (FA) as by-products. In the work described here, this process is studied, comparing microwave and conventional heating, as well as the use of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and the Montmorillonite KSF clay as catalyst. Some improvements were observed when the reactions were carried out using a biphasic system (water:THF) which provides a more effective product extraction than the monophasic systems. The highest 5-HMF and LA recoveries where obtained with the combination of the biphasic systems and microwave radiation using MKSF as catalyst. This approach highlights the opportunities of melon rind carbohydrate fraction to be transformed in a source of biofuel precursors, in a clean and efficient manner, using environmental-friendly techniques. Hence, the aim of this work is the study of the hydrolysis and dehydration of microcrystalline cellulose by microwave radiation using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and different reaction systems. The optimal conditions obtained have been applied for the obtaining of HMF and LA, both of them well-known biofuel precursors, from some waste such as beer bagasse and melon rind. For conclusion, this work has been able to obtain biofuel precursors from waste using a green and environmentally friendly energy such as microwave radiation. In addition, it have been developed different methods to obtain one precursor or another, using different pre-treatment and changing experimental conditions.

 

 

 

Figure : Components of the cell wall

Recent Publications:

  1. C. Lucas-Torres, A. Lorente, B. Cabañas,  A. Moreno. J. Clean. Prod., 2016, 168, 59-69
  2. Qi Fang, Milford A.Hanna, Bioresourc. Technol., 2002, 81, 187-192.
  3. K. Kyeong, P. Don-Hee, J. Gwi-Taek, Bioresoruc. Technol., 2013, 132, 160-165
  4. S.X Chin, C.H. Chia, S. Zakaria, Z. Fang, S. Ahmad. J. Taiwan Inst Chem Eng. 2015, 52, 85-92
  5. P. Niemi, C.vB. Foulds, J. Sibakov, U. Holopainen, K. Poutaneu, J. Buchert. Bioresourc. Technol., 2012, 116, 155-160
  6. S. I. Mussatto, M. Fermandes, A. M. F. Milagres, I. C. Roberto. Enzyme Microb. Technol., 2008, 43, 124-129

 

 

Christof Weinlaender

Insitute of Thermal Engineering, Austria

Title: SOFC CCHP – Treating biogas for the use in a SOFC-system

Time : 12:20-12:40

Speaker
Biography:

Christof Weinlaender studied chemical engineering at Graz University of Technology, Austria. In 2014 he finished his master thesis about liquid liquid extraction at the Department of Chemical Engineering at Graz University of Technology. Since 2014, he is working at the Department of Thermal Engineering at Graz University of Technology as project scientist assistant. Key areas of interest are biofuels, adsorption processes and solid oxide fuel cells.

Abstract:

A SOFC CCHP system (Combined Cooling, Heat and Power) using renewable energy sources (biogas, sewage gas, landfill gas) will be developed to achieve high efficiencies. While electrical power will be produced at very high efficiencies using a SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell), the energy of the hot exhaust gas will be used to operate an absorption chiller system which provides a low temperature coolant and its waste heat can be used for heating. The combined system allows the utilization of various renewable energy sources and a high annual efficiency. Depending on the utilized fuel, which will be converted in the SOFC, different requirements for the gas cleaning unit have to be taken into account. Due to the planned multi fuel ability of the system, an overall concept for the gas cleaning and gas processing unit must be developed to achieve a high degree of standardization. The desulfurization of biogas is essential for the successful operation of SOFCs. H2S is one of the main components in biogas. In order to feed a solid oxide fuel cell, the contaminated gas has to be reduced to a certain degree. In this work, different parameters onto the desulfurization performance of commercially available desulfurization adsorbents were investigated. H2S removal efficiency was monitored under various operating conditions such as different temperatures, space velocities and inlet concentrations. The experience obtained from these tests provides fundamental knowledge for further development activities for such systems. This includes the determination of the useful power range for a product, the real dynamic of the system, the suitability of different fuels and their influence on the system performance as well as potentials for process simplifications and useful data for adsorption tower design and process optimization.

 

Recent Publications:

  1. Weinländer, C., Neubauer, R. & Hochenauer, C. (2016), Low-temperature H2S removal for solid oxide fuel cell application with metal oxide adsorbents. Adsorption Science & Technology, 10.1177/0263617416672664
  2. Neubauer, R., Weinländer, C., Kienzl, N., Schröttner, H. & Hochenauer, C. (2016) Adsorptive Desulfurization: Fast On-Board Regeneration and the Influence of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester on Desulfurization and in Situ Regeneration Performance of a Silver-Based Adsorbent. Energy Fuels, 30 (6), pp 5174–5182.
  3. Neubauer, R., Husmann, S. M., Weinländer, C., Kienzl, N., Leitner, E. & Hochenauer, C. (2016) Acid base interaction and its influence on the adsorption kinetics and selectivity order of aromatic sulfur heterocycles adsorbing on Ag-Al2O3. Chemical engineering journal. 309, S. 840 849 S.
  4. Aksamija, E., Weinländer, C., Sarzio, R. & Siebenhofer, M. (2015) The Taylor-Couette Disc Contactor: A Novel Apparatus for Liquid/Liquid Extraction. Separation science and technology. 50, 18, S. 2844-2852
  5. Aksamija, E., Weinländer, C., Sarzio, R. & Siebenhofer, M. (2013) A Novel Simpflified Design for Agitated Extraction Columns. 9th European Congress of Chemical Engineering

Qian Kang

KU Leuven, Belgium and Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China

Title: Microalgae for biodiesel and 3rd generation bioethanol: prospects and research priorities

Time : 12:40-01:00

Speaker
Biography:

Qian Kang completed her chemical engineering bachelor study at the Tianjin University in China (2008). She completed PhD studies at the Beijing University of Chemical Technology in China, where she was a member of the PhD research team of Prof. Tan and is currently postdoc at the Catholic University of Leuven, within the team of Prof. Dewil and Prof. Baeyens. Her main PhD research focus was to improving the energy consumption of the production of Bio-ethanol, especially in combination with membrane technology. Her immediate research actions focus upon energy and exergy analysis of the next generation of concentrated solar power plants  (hybrid combined cycle). Within the framework of this renewable fuel, she has participated in different conferences (Beijing, Tianjin, Korea, London,...). She has (co-)authored 8 publications in international peer-reviewed journals.

Abstract:

Algae are gaining wide attention as an alternative renewable source of biomass for the production of biofuel, including biodiesel and bio-ethanol. The utilization of algal biomass is undoubtedly an eco-friendly approach towards sustainability although more research and development is needed for the efficient use of these easily cultivable microorganisms to generate biofuel. The paper reviews the current state-of-science with respect to microalgal biofuel production, with a specific focus upon the biodiesel and bio-ethanol production potential. An updated literature review reveals that different types of microalgae can be applied, although Chlorella sp. and Chlorococcum sp. are most appropriate for biofuel production and can also be used for bio-ethanol. The bio-ethanol productivity from green algae is higher than for red algae. The complete production process is analyzed from algae growth, to harvesting, and conversion into biodiesel and bio-ethanol. The use of microalgae in a hybrid objective, i.e. the treatment of wastewater and generation of raw material for biofuel, has drawn a lot of attention over the past years and is reviewed. Clearly, biofuel from microalgae, produced from natural resources (sunlight, water and O2/CO2) is widely considered to be the most sustainable option for biodiesel and associated bio-ethanol production, and priority research can enhance the further development.

Recent Publications:

  1. Kang Q, Huybrechts J, Van der Bruggen B, Baeyens J, Tan TW, Dewil R (2014) Hydrophilic Membranes to replace Molecular Sieves in Dewatering the bio-ethanol/water azeotropic mixture. Separation and Purification Technology 136: 144-149.
  2. Kang Q, Van der Bruggen B, Dewil R, Baeyens J, Tan TW (2015) Hybrid operation of the bio-ethanol fermentation. Separation and Purification Technology 149: 322-330.
  3. Kang Q, Baeyens J, Tan TW, Dewil R (2015) A Novel Sintered Metal Fiber Microfiltration of Bio-ethanol Fermentation Broth. The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 32: 1625-1633.
  4. Kang Q, Tan TW (2016) Exergy and CO2 analyses as key tools for the evaluation of bio-ethanol production. Sustainability. 8: doi:10.3390/su80100765.
  5. Baeyens J, Kang Q, Appels L, Dewil R,  Lv YQ, Tan TW (2015) Challenges and Opportunities in Improving the production of Bio-ethanol. Progress in  Energy and Combustion Science 47: 60-88.

Qian Kang

KU Leuven, Belgium and Beijing University of Chemical Technology, China

Title: Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass: Current findings determine research priorities

Time : 12:40-01:00

Speaker
Biography:

Qian Kang completed her chemical engineering bachelor study at the Tianjin University in China (2008). She completed PhD studies at the Beijing University of Chemical Technology in China, where she was a member of the PhD research team of Prof. Tan and is currently postdoc at the Catholic University of Leuven, within the team of Prof. Dewil and Prof. Baeyens. Her main PhD research focus was to improving the energy consumption of the production of Bio-ethanol, especially in combination with membrane technology. Her immediate research actions focus upon energy and exergy analysis of the next generation of concentrated solar power plants  (hybrid combined cycle). Within the framework of this renewable fuel, she has participated in different conferences (Beijing, Tianjin, Korea, London,...). She has (co-)authored 8 publications in international peer-reviewed journals.

Abstract:

Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulosematerial as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ∼50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes.

 

Figure: Second generation biomass-to-ethanol production (ST: steam addition)

Recent Publications:

  1. Kang Q, Huybrechts J, Van der Bruggen B, Baeyens J, Tan TW, Dewil R (2014) Hydrophilic Membranes to replace Molecular Sieves in Dewatering the bio-ethanol/water azeotropic mixture. Separation and Purification Technology 136: 144-149.
  2. Kang Q, Van der Bruggen B, Dewil R, Baeyens J, Tan TW (2015) Hybrid operation of the bio-ethanol fermentation. Separation and Purification Technology 149: 322-330.
  3. Kang Q, Baeyens J, Tan TW, Dewil R (2015) A Novel Sintered Metal Fiber Microfiltration of Bio-ethanol Fermentation Broth. The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 32: 1625-1633.
  4. Kang Q, Tan TW (2016) Exergy and CO2 analyses as key tools for the evaluation of bio-ethanol production. Sustainability. 8: doi:10.3390/su80100765.
  5. Baeyens J, Kang Q, Appels L, Dewil R,  Lv YQ, Tan TW (2015) Challenges and Opportunities in Improving the production of Bio-ethanol. Progress in  Energy and Combustion Science 47: 60-88.

Break: Lunch Break 01:00-01:45
Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Ghazala Yasmeen Butt has her expertise in algal culturing and extraction for biofuel. She has 12 years’ experience in this regard and many projects completed under her supervision. She works as associate Professor of Phycology and Chairperson of Department of Botany, GC University.

Abstract:

Algae are an attractive biofuel feedstock because of their fast growth rates and improved land use efficiency when compared with terrestrial crops. Altogether two microalgae species Cladophora fracta (Dillw.) Kützing and Euglena Polymorpha Dangeard were collected from various freshwater ponds, channels and tanks of Sheikhupora. Collected species were analyzed for bioethanol production capacity Cladophora fracta (Dillw.) Kützing treated showed high quantity of bioethanol (0.29gm) whereas Euglena polymorpha Dangeard untreated became the least efficient (0.10gm). Euglena polymorpha Dangeard untreated left 99% biomass after bioethanol. pH of bioethanol of all experimental algal species fall in the range of 5.8-6. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed to prove the bond representation events including purified fatty acid ethyl esters of biomass. A dominant peak at 3342.67 cm-1 corresponds to OH bending in cellulose and hemicellulose. This band was expanded to 1641.70cm-1 in treated sample of Cladophora fracta (Dillw.) Kützing which is showing the separation in some parts of cellulose. The band was expanded to 1415.10cm-1 in treated sample of Euglena polymorpha Dangeard which is showing the separation in some parts of cellulose.  Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis has shown ions composition in the bioethanol. The ethanol contents in the bioethanol was measured by gas chromatography.

Recent Publications:

  1. Khola, G. and B. Ghazala 2012. Biodiesel Production form Algae. Pak J Bot 44(1): 379-381.
  2. Ammad, A.F., B. Ghazala and R. Zubia 2012. Algae extracts and Methyl Jasmonate anti-cancer activities in prostate cancer: choreographers of „the dance macabre‟. Cancer Cell Int. 2012 Nov 26;12(1):50.
  3. Ejaz, H., W. Li-Jun, J. Bo, R. Saba, B. Ghazala and Da-Yong Shi. 2016. A review of the components of brown seaweeds as potential candidates in cancer therapy. Roy. Soci. Chem. Adv., 6, 12592-12610.
  4. Michael Podevina, Ioannis A. Fotidisa, Davide De Franciscia, Per Møllerb, Irini Angelidakia 2017. Detailing the start-up and microalgal growth performance of a full-scale photobioreactor operated with bioindustrial wastewater Algal Res. 25: 101–108.

Gopal P Agarwal

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India

Title: Partial separation of simulated lignocellulosic hydrolyzate via nanofiltration

Time : 02:05-02:25

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Gopal P. Agarwal is a Professor in the Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology at Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, INDIA for over 22 years. He has been teaching a course on Applications of membranes and his research interests are also in applications of pressure driven membrane processes in downstream processing in food and biotechnology. He has been Principal Investigator of several sponsored projects worth Rs 3.5 crores from Government of India Agencies agencies like DST, DBT, IFCPAR, MDWS and ICAR.He has over 30 publications in the Journals of Membrane Science, Bioseparation, Separation Science & Technology, Journal of Chromatography and Bio-resource Technology.

Abstract:

In recent years, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has been identified as a promising technology for producing liquid biofuels. However, lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis produces a mixture of hexose and pentose sugars, which together are difficult to ferment to produce ethanol. Moreover, it also contains several fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, 5-hydroxyl methyl furfural and some phenolic compounds. Thus in literature several recombinant strains, capable of simultaneous uptake of glucose and xylose have been developed [1]. Along with use of recombinant strains, nanofiltration has also been applied to concentrate the sugars in hydrolyzate [2, 3], and for simultaneously removal of inhibitors from hydrolyzate [2-4], which increased the overall sugar consumption and improved the ethanol yield. However, genetically modified strains may suffer from low yields, low productivities and genetic instability. In this study, a new strategy is used where nanofiltration is applied for separating the xylose from a synthetic hydrolyzate mixture (as shown in Fig. 1).  Sjoman et al [5] had already shown that glucose and xylose can be partially separated by using nanofiltration membranes, however, their aim was towards complete separation.  On the other hand in the proposed process, hydrolyzate is divided into two streams one has higher glucose to xylose ratio (retentate stream) and another has lower glucose to xylose ratio (permeate stream). Most of the inhibitors, present in hydrolyzate get enriched along with glucose in the retentate stream, which can be easily fermented by S. cerevisiae. Permeate stream with lower inhibitors concentration and lower glucose to xylose ratio can be effectively fermented by suitably adapted P. stipitis [6]. In this study simulated hydrolyzate solutions were experimentally examined using commercially available spiral wound nanofiltration modules. Experiments were performed in the volume reduction (dynamic) mode at variety of operating conditions by using different cut-off nanofiltration membranes in order to optimize the operating conditions and to identify the best suitable cut-off for maximizing the separation. The optimization study involved would be to minimize presence of xylose in the glucose enriched stream by combination of suitable concentration factor and separation factor.

Fig. : Proposed strategy for processing of hydrolyzate from lignocellulosic biomass via nanofiltration

Recent Publications:

1.  B. Hahn-Hagerdal, M. Galbe, M.F. Gorwa-Grauslund, G. Lide´n and G. Zacchi (2006). Bio-ethanol – the fuel of tomorrow from the residues of today, Trends in Biotechnology 24, 549-556

2. Sasaki K., Tsuge Y., Sasaki D., Teramura H., Inokuma K. (2015), Mechanical milling and membrane separation for increased ethanol production during simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of rice straw by xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bioresource Technology 185:263-268.

3. Sasaki K., Tsuge Y., Sasaki D., Hasunuma T., Sakamoto T., Sakihama Y., Ogino C., Kondo A. (2014) Optimized membrane process to increase hemicellulosic ethanol production from pretreated rice straw by recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bioresource Technology 169:380-386.

4.  Maiti S.K., Thuyavan Y.L., Singh S., Oberoi H.S., Agarwal G.P. (2012) Modeling of the separation of inhibitory components from pretreated rice straw hydrolyzate by nanofiltration membranes, Bioresource Technology 114: 419-427.

5. Sjoman E., Manttari M., Nystrom M., Koivikko H., Heikkil H. (2007) Separation of xylose from glucose by nanofiltration from concentrated monosaccharide solutions, Journal of Membrane Science 292:106-115.

6. Rastogi A., Agarwal G.P. (2016) Nanofiltration mediated process for ethanol fermentation of biomass hydrolyzates by wild-type yeasts presented International Conference on Twenty First Century Energy Needs (ICTFEN)-Materials, Systems and Applications sponsored by IEEE on November 18, 2016. 

 

Speaker
Biography:

Kefale wagaw is a lecturer in chemical Engineering Program and Researcher in biofuel energy and essential oil extraction from plants and fruits such as: biogas co-digestion and optimization, oil/biodiesel blending with kerosene and Characterization and utilization of bioslury for crop production, bio-ethanol production from legmicelulose biomass

Abstract:

Abstract: In biogas plant, there are mainly two products: methane gas which is use for different purposes like cooking, lighting and slurry which can be used as organic fertilizer. The main target of this study was characterizing the slurry by measuring the relative amount of macro and micro nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, and Manganese by using standard methods. And comparative study on the productivity of organic fertilizer at different treatments steps with commercial fertilizer on selected crops. Potassium and Calcium values increase when it was composted.  This is because of that decomposed vegetables are sources of both Ca and K during composting while Magnesium and Manganese values decrease when the slurry converts to compost. Both compost and commercial fertilizer have the same productivity for onion cultivation .Compost, gives the highest incremental yield of chills (even higher than that of chemical fertilizer).From productivity test 1.5kg/m2 onions and 3.75kg/m2 chills was produced using biogas-slurry compost.

Key words: biogas slurry, compare, compost, macro and micro contents.

Table: elemental composition of biogas feed stock at different treatment stapes

Sample

K[mg/l]

Ca[mg/l]

Mg [mg/l]

P [mg/l]

N2 (%)

Ma [mg/l]

Manure

66.92

0.84

5.11

0.22

2.10

56.50

Slurry

107.56

0.69

2.3

0.20

2.52

46.16

Compost

146.11

2.22

4.91

0.33

1.68

55.35

Nitrogen decrease (33%) during composting this is due to volatilization of N2 in the form of NH3 and NH4.

References:

[1]. Chawla O.P., 1984. Manurial Aspects.' Advances in Biogas Technology. New Delhi: ICAR.

[2]. Acharya, C.N., 1961. Preparation of Fuel Gas and Manure by Anaerobic Fermentation of Organic

Materials. New Delhi: Indian Agriculture Research institute.

[3]. Acharya, C.N., 1953.   'Cow Dung Gas Plants.'   Indian Fmg. N.S. 2 (9): 16-18; Acharya, C.N., 1952.  

'Organic Manures.' I.C.A.R. Res. Rev. Ser. Bull. 2. New Delhi.

[4]. Dhussa, A.K., 1985. ' Biogas Plant Effluent Handling and Utilisation.' in Changing Villages Vol.7,

No.l.

[5]. Kanthaswamy, V., 1993. ' Effect of Bio-Digested Slurry in Rice.' In Biogas Slurry Utilsation. New Deihi: CORT.

[6]. Riggle, David, 1997.   ' Anaerobic Digestion Gets New Life on Farms/ In BioCycle, January, 1997.

[7]. Rosenberg, G. 1952 (a). Methane Production from Farm Wastes as Source of Tractor Fuel. Journal of Min. Agric. (England) 58: 487-94.

[8]. Dohne, E., 1990. Optimal Bioslurry Fertilisation in West Germany. In Biogas Forum, Vol. 1 Special, 1990

[9]. Sharma, U.P., 1981. 'Complete Recycling of Cattle-Shed Wastes Through Biogas Plant.' Seminar

Com Workshop on Janata Biogas Technology and Fodder Production  Kamal: NARI.

[10]. MoARD, 2010. Ethiopia’s Agricultural Sector Policy and Investment Framework (PIF) draft office. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

 

Speaker
Biography:

The author has already been granted two Indian patents  and filed another six  patents. He has published over 130 research papers of national and international repute. A devoted worker for popularization of Science and Technology among the masses in Assam and promotion of biodiversity and environment conservation in North East India.

Abstract:

In the recent times, microalgae have been the immense source of attraction as a highly potential and promising renewable biomass source of energy, biomittigation and sustainable valuable products.  Biotechnological explorations of the underutilized bountiful indigenous algae diversity of NE India,  have potentially opened up a new avenue for sustainable product  development including  biofuel production . Several microalgae species have been marked as potential source of naturally occurring high valued products  such as lipids, vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates, antioxidants  , colorants ,food supplements and other bioactive molecules. The North East India, apart from being one of the mega biodiversity hotspots in the world, has bestowed upon with vivid freshwater microalgal resources. These diverse bio-resources of the region are yet to be explored to the extent  for their potential biotechnological applications. Recent studies carried out are envisaged with the isolation and screening of freshwater biodiesel potential microalgae of the region  yielding  with the isolation of 24 indigenous freshwater microalgae species, which require further works for possible commercial utilizations and biotechnological applications. Among the isolated microalgae, Chlorella sp, Botryococcus braunii, Ankistrodesmus sp, Scenedesmus sp, Euglena sp, Haematococcus sp, Navicula sp, and Nitzchia sp are known to be a few oleaginous microalgae noteworthy for biofuel production. Oil (lipid) contents were quantitatively evaluated in laboratory cultures of isolated Ankistrodesmus sp, B.braunii, Scenedesmus sp, Chlorella sp and Chlorococcum species. The lipid content of some of the isolated microalgae species grown in normal BG11 medium were found to be  in the range between 11.3 – 42.0% of dry weight. Analysis of the carotenoid contents of the selected native microalgae species also revealed higher content of lutein, lycopene and astaxanthin, which can be produced as other high valued products for additional fund generation in the course of liquid biofuel production. The liquid hydrocarbon producing green microalgae B.braunii is found to be significant among the isolated microalgae, which exhibited hydrocarbon in the range between 21.9-60.7% of dry weight. Some of these isolated microalgae e.g. Scenedesmus sp (8-56% Protein; 10-52% Carbohydrate), Chlorella sp (51-58% Protein; 12-26% Carbohydrate), Euglena sp (39-61% Protein; 14-18% Carbohydrate & 14-20% Lipid) are also reported to contain high percentage of carbohydrate and protein in addition to its moderate to high lipid content, which justify the enough scope for utilization of these species in developing a technology for potential biofuel production and other value added products of commercial potential based on biorefinery approaches.

Recent Publications:

  1. Khangembam, R, Kalita MC (2015). Studies on bioflocculant exopolysaccharides production by Lyngbya sp.BTA166 and Anabaena Sp. BTA35. Annals of Biological Research. 6(11): 47-54.
  1. Talukdar J, Kalita MC, Goswami BC, Hong DD, Das HC (2014). Liquid hydrocarbon production potential of the novel strain of the microalga Botryocooccus braunii Kutzing: Assesing the reliability of in situ hydrocarbon recovery by wet process solvent extraction. Energy and Fuels. 28 (6): 3747-3758. dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef402298r.
  1. Talukdar J, Kalita MC, Goswami BC (2013). Characterization of the biofuel potential of a newly isolated strain of the microalga Botryocooccus braunii Kutzing from Assam, India. Bioresource Technology. 149 (1) 268 – 279. 140(2013)268-275.
  1. Kaur S, Sarkar M, Srivastava RB, Gogoi HK.  , Kalita MC (2012) Fatty acid profiling and molecular characterization of some freshwater microalgae from India with potential for biodiesel production. 15: 29 (3): 332 - 44. New Biotechnology, DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2011.10.009.
  1. Kalita N, Baruah G, Goswami RCD, Talukdar J , Kalita MC (2011) Ankistrodesmus falcatus: A promising candidate for lipid production, its biochemical analysis and strategies to enhance lipid productivity . J. Microbiol. Biotech. Res. 1 (4): 148-15.

Biography:

Jonni Guiller Ferreira Madeira is a mathematician with a Master's degree in Nuclear Engineering. He is a researcher and teacher at the Federal Center for Technological Education Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-Angra dos Reis) and PhD student at Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, both institutions are located in Brazil. His Researcher is related to mathematical modeling, computacional simulation, nuclear energy, thermodynamics and biohydrogen production. Its recent research is related to exergetic analysis, economic analysis and ecological analysis of the production of biohydrogen from cassava wastewater.

Abstract:

The use Bioenergy, in recent years, has become a good alternative to reduce the emission of polluting gases. Several Brazilian and foreign companies are doing studies related to waste management as an essential tool in the search for energy efficiency, taking into consideration, also, the ecological aspect. Brazil is one of the largest cassava producers in the world, the cassava sub-products are the food base of millions of Brazilians. The repertoire of results about the ecological impact from the production, by steam reforming, of biohydrogen from cassava wastewater biogas is very limited because, in general, this commodity is more common in underdeveloped countries. This hydrogen, produced from cassava wastewater, appears as an alternative fuel to fossil fuels since this is a low cost carbon source. This paper evaluates the environmental impact of biohydrogen production, bt steam reforming, from cassava wastewater biogas. The ecological efficiency methodology developed by Cardu and Baica was used as a benchmark in this study. The methodology mainly assesses the emissions of equivalent carbon dioxide (CO2, SOx, CH4 and particulate matter). As a result some environmental parameters, such as equivalent carbon dioxide emissions, pollutant indicator and ecological efficiency are evaluated due to the fact that they are important to energy production. The average values of the environmental parameters among different biogas compositions (different concentrations of methane) was calculated, the average pollution indicator was 10.11 kgCO2e/kgH2 with an average ecological efficiency of 93.37%. As a conclusion, bioenergy production using biohydrogen from cassava wastewater treatment plant is a good option from the environmental feasibility point of view.  This fact can be justified by the determination of environmental parameters and comparison of the environmental parameters of hydrogen production via steam reforming from different types of fuels (as shown in table 1).

Table 1: Comparison of the environmental parameters of hydrogen production via steam reforming from different types of fuels.

 

Energetic efficiency

Pollution indicator

Ecological efficiency

Biogas from cassava wastewater (average values)

60.42%

10.11 kgCO2e/kgH2

93.37%

Ethanol steam

73%.

21kgCO2e/kgH2

92.13%

Natural gas

71.78%

25.05kgCO2e/kgH2

91.63%

Biogas from manure cow

80%

15.43kgCO2e/kgH2

94.95%

Recent Publications:

  1. Madeira, J. G. F., Delgado, A. R. S., Boloy, R. A. M., Coutinho, E. R., & Loures, C. C. A. (2017). Exergetic and economic evaluation of incorporation of hydrogen production in a cassava wastewater plant. Applied Thermal Engineering.
  2. Boloy, R. A. M., Silveira, J. L., Tuna, C. E., Coronado, C. R., & Antunes, J. S. (2011). Ecological impacts from syngas burning in internal combustion engine: Technical and economic aspects. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews15(9), 5194-5201.
  3. Boloy, R. A. M., Ferrán, S. J. R., e Penalva, D. D. C. L., Corrêa, C., Angulo, J. A. P., & de Castro Pereira Filho, R. (2015). Exergetic evaluation of incorporation of hydrogen production in a biodiesel plant. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy40(29), 8797-8805.
  4. Madeira, J. G. F., Boloy, R. A. M., Delgado, A. R. S., Lima, F. R., Coutinho, E. R., & de Castro Pereira Filho, R. (2017). Ecological analysis of hydrogen production via biogas steam reforming from cassava flour processing wastewater. Journal of Cleaner Production.
  5. Boloy, R. A. M., Silveira, J. L., & Tuna, C. E. (2008). Technical and economical analysis of biomass integrated gasifier/combined cycle power. proc. 2008 ENCIT, 121-131.

 

 

Speaker
Biography:

Omar Aboelazayem is a teaching assistant in the Chemical Engineering department of The British University in Egypt (BUE) (2013-present). He received Bachelor of Science Honours degree (BSc) with Distinction from the BUE in Chemical Engineering (2013). He also earned a validated Bachelor of Engineering Honours degree (BEng) with Distinction in Chemical Engineering (2013) from London South Bank University (LSBU). He has enrolled in LSBU as a PhD student in February 2015. His research is focused on sustainable production of biodiesel from renewable sources. He has published more than 5 research papers from his doctoral work.

Abstract:

Biodiesel has been considered as a reasonable replacement fuel for petroleum diesel. It has many advantages over petroleum diesel including its biodegradability and non-toxicity. In addition, it provides free aromatics and sulphur combustion and it is a greener fuel with lower carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emissions. However, biodiesel has lower heating value and it is relatively more expensive than petroleum diesel. In an attempt to reduce the cost of biodiesel, waste cooking oil (WCO) has been considered as a competitive feedstock. It also provides more sustainability for the produced biodiesel as it is a result of transformation of waste to greener source of energy. The main concern for using WCO as a feedstock for biodiesel production is the presence of high concentration of free fatty acids (FFA), which result in saponification reaction while using the conventional alkaline catalysed process. Saponification lowers the biodiesel yield by preventing the separation of biodiesel from the product. In this study, a non-catalytic method for biodiesel production from WCO using supercritical methanol has been investigated. Two different feedstocks with different FFA concentration have been examined. Response surface methodology (RSM) using Box Behnken Design (BBD) and Central Composite Design (CCD) has been employed to analyse the effect of different reaction variables including methanol to oil (M:O) molar ratio, temperature, pressure and time on biodiesel yield. Numerical optimisation has been applied to determine the optimum conditions for maximum production of biodiesel for each feedstock. It has been concluded that the feedstock with higher FFA concentration produce higher biodiesel yield within the same reaction conditions. This result indicates the significance of using supercritical methanol technique for feedstocks with high FFA concentration as it enhances both esterification of FFA and transesterification of triglycerides (TG) to fatty acids methyl esters (FAME).

Recent Publications:

  1. Aboelazayem O, Gadalla M, Saha B (2016) Optimisation of biodiesel production from waste cooking under supercritical conditions. Sixth International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste Proceedings. ISBN code 9788862650090, Venice, Italy, November 14-17.
  2. Aboelazayem O, Gadalla M, Saha B (2017) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via supercritical methanol. Renewable Energy. In press, June 23.
  3. Aboelazayem O, Abdelaziz O, Gadalla M, Hylteberg C, Saha B (2017) Biodiesel production from high acid value waste cooking oil using supercritical methanol: Esterification kinetics of free fatty acids. EUBCE 2017 – 25th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceeding, Stockholm, June 12-15.
  4. Aboelazayem O, Gadalla M, Saha B (2017) Optimising biodiesel from high acid value waste cooking using supercritical methanol. SEEP 2017 – 10th International Conference in Sustainable Energy & Environmental Production Proceedings, Bled, June 27-30.
  5. Aboelazayem O, El-Gendy N, Ashouh F, Sadek M (2017) Complete analysis of castor oil methanolysis for biodiesel production. SEEP 2017 – 10th International Conference in Sustainable Energy & Environmental Production Proceedings. Bled, June 27-30.
  6. Aboelazayem O, Gadalla M, Saha B (2017) An experimental-based energy integrated process for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using supercritical methanol. Chemical Engineering Transactions 61, accepted.

MennatAllah Labib

The British University in Egypt, Egypt

Title: Mass and energy recovery from rice straw as a biomass resource

Time : 03:40-03:55

Speaker
Biography:

MennatAllah graduated the valedictorian of her class with a B.Sc. degree with Distinction with Honours in Chemical Engineering (2013) from the British University in Egypt (BUE), specialising in Environmental Engineering. She earned also a validated B.Eng. degree with Distinction with Honours in Chemical Engineering (2013) from London South Bank University (LSBU), also specialising in Environmental Engineering. Mennat Allah is preparing for MSc. Degree In Renewable Energy, Faculty of Engineering, BUE. She hopes to continue in the academic field and looks forward to continue research in the field of environmental engineering and green processes.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Egypt is a country that faces major environmental issues; ranging from pollution of water bodies to the litter piling up in the streets to the severely polluted air. Egypt is facing an energy crisis because the energy consumption of oil has increased due to the increase in population, while the production has remained stagnant. One of the best ways to tackle this problem is to use renewable energy.  The proposed solution that is capable of partially solving the air pollution, agricultural solid waste and energy crisis problems is the production of fuel from rice straw. The Dutch Avantium Technologies proposed using ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF) as a fuel which is produced from furfural. Furfural is a valuable chemical that has many uses in the fields of renewable energy, medicine, agriculture, paints and dyes, plastics and resins, solvents, and organic products. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Six different factors with the potential to affect the furfural production were assessed using ANOVA. From this analysis the optimum operating conditions were evaluated. The reaction kinetics of the formation and subsequent degradation of furfural were determined experimentally. All tests and analyses carried out were done using standard methods. Findings: Production of furfural by acid hydrolysis was found to be possible. Optimum operating conditions for furfural production from rice straw were experimentally determined using analysis of variance to ensure statistical significance. Reaction kinetics were determined to be used in the design of a reactor in a furfural production plant. Conclusion & Significance: Furfural is emerging with increasing value in many fields. The ability to easily produce furfural from rice straw, which would otherwise end up as a solid waste cannot be overstated. This has the double advantage of reducing solid waste and creating a valuable product that can greatly impact the renewable energy sector.

Figure : Fuel densities showing the advantage EMF has over traditional biofuels and its ability to compete with diesel and gasoline

Recent Publications:

  1. Danon, B., Marcotullio, G., de Jong, W. (2014) Mechanistic and kinetic aspects of pentose dehydration towards furfural in aqueous media employing homogeneous catalysis. Green Chemistry 1:39-54
  2. Marcotullio, G. (2011) The Chemistry and Technology of Furfural Production in Modern Lignocellulose-Feedstock Biorefineries. Arkhé Edizioni.
  3. Sangarunlert, W., Piumsomboon, P., Ngamprasertsith S. (2007) Furfural production by acid hydrolysis and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction from rice husk. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 24:936-941
  4. Sarkar, N., Aikat, K. (2013) Kinetic Study of Acid Hydrolysis of Rice Straw. ISRN Biotechnology 2013:5 pages
  5. Sako, T., Sugeta, T., Nakazawa, N., Okubo, T., Sato, M., Taguchi, T., Hiaki, T. (1992) Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan 25:372-377

Biography:

Abstract:

This study investigates the use of 4-dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (DBSA) as a catalyst for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from rapeseed oil, using a mesoscale oscillatory baffled reactor (“meso-OBR”) as a screening platform. The effects of oscillatory mixing intensity, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, catalyst to oil molar ratio and residence time on the conversion to FAME were evaluated. The reaction conditions were optimised using the Design of Experiments (DoE) methodology. A Box-Behnken design with one block, three variables (methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst to oil molar ratio and residence time) and three replicates of the central point was used. A response surface model was able to predict the FAME conversion over a broad range of operating conditions. ANOVA analysis revealed that the catalyst to oil molar ratio and residence time were more significant than the methanol to oil molar ratio. More than 98% conversion of rapeseed oil to FAME was achieved under mild reaction conditions 6.5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 0.48:1 of catalyst to oil molar ratio and 120min. The DBSA catalyst allowed operation at a significantly lower molar ratio than in conventional acid catalysis: below 7:1, as opposed to the 9:1 typically used with sulphuric acid. Furthermore, the degree of agitation required was greatly reduced, due to its behaviour as a surfactant. Only 180 min was required to accomplish the reaction compared with 19hr that for sulphuric acid. Finally, very little DBSA catalyst was required (0.18wt %), compared to sulphuric acid (0.5wt %), under the reaction conditions investigated here. The significant reductions in excess methanol and degree of agitation would significantly reduce operating costs, and the substantial reduction in reaction time would significantly reduce reactor size, and therefore capital cost.

Break: Networking and Refreshments 04:10-04:30
Biography:

Ramachandran Sivaramakrishnan has been working in the production of biofuels from microalgae. He is working as a Post-doctroral researcher in the department of biochemistry, Chulalongkorn University. His doctoral studies were about methyl ester production from macroalgae using lipase catalyst. He has been awarded as Junior Research Fellow by Department of Science and Technology, India. He has published five research articles in international journals.

Abstract:

Problem

The continued use of fossil fuels depletes the reserves, more than 75% of petroleum based fuels are burnt in the transportation sector. The utilization of global energy is expected to be increased in the future due to increase population and demand. Therefore, there is a need for alternative fuel, which is not only satisfying the need, but also solve the environmental problems. Microalgae feedstocks, a reliable biofuel source, has drawn much attention as an alternative and renewable. This is due to the microalgal species have the excellent photosynthetic efficiencies and the biomass reproducibility potential than any other terrestrial crops. In this study the integrated approach of ethanol and biodiesel production from algal biomass. This integrated method is to develop the microalgae based biorefinery model.

Abstract

The present study focuses on the biorefinery approach of integrated production of bioethanol and biodiesel from microalgae feedstock. Various pretreatment methods were used to determine the maximum recovery of sugars from Scenedesmus sp. The total sugar yield of 84 % was obtained when pretreated separately by acid hydrolysis. The hydrolysate produce 90 % of ethanol (theoretical yield) after the fermentation.  Enzyme catalyzed ultrasound assisted direct transesterification of biomass was performed and the maximum of 91% methyl ester yield, 2.6 % glycerol carbonate and 5.6% glycerol dicarbonate was obtained. The integrated process of initial acid hydrolysis produces 84 % of total sugar. The sugar extracted biomass was initiated with enzyme catalyzed direct transesterification with ultrasound irradiation. The obtained hydrolysate was further fermented with S. cerevisiae and at the optimized conditions of fermentation 90 % of ethanol (theoretical yield) was obtained. The conditions of direct transesterification using enzyme were optimized and produces 89 % of biodiesel yield with 2.1 % glycerol carbonate and 4.9 % glycerol dicarbonate. Thus, the microalgal biomass efficiently produces both ethanol and biodiesel as well glycerol carbonate, which could be the biorefinery model for sustainable future development.

Recent Publications:

1. Sivaramakrishnan R. and Aran I. “Direct transesterification of Botryococcus sp. catalysed by immobilized lipase: Ultrasound treatment can reduce reaction time with high yield of methyl ester” , Fuel, Vol.191, pp.363-370 (Publisher – Elsivier)

2. Sivaramakrishnan R. and Aran I. “Purification and characterization of solvent tolerant lipase from Bacillus sp. for methyl ester production from algal oil”, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol. 121, pp.517-522, 2016 (Publisher – Elsevier)

3. Sivaramakrishnan, R. and Muthukumar, K. “Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase”, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol.117, pp.86-91, 2013 (Publisher – Elsevier)

4. Sivaramakrishnan, R. and Muthukumar, K. “Production of methyl ester from Oedogonium sp. oil using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase”, Energy & Fuels, Vol. 26, pp.6387−6392, 2012 (Publisher – American Chemical Soceity (ACS))

5. Sivaramakrishnan, R. and Muthukumar, K. “Isolation of thermo-stable and solvent-tolerant Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of biodiesel”, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol.166, pp.1095–1111, 2012 (Publisher - Springer).