Day 3 :
Biorefining Research Institute, Lakehead University, Canada
Time : 09:30-10:00
Dr. Lew Christopher holds a Masters degree in Chemical Engineering and a Ph.D. degree in Biotechnology. He has more than 25 years of industrial and academic experience in the field of bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass. Currently he serves as Director of the Biorefining Research Institute leading an interdisciplinary team of faculty and researchers from several science and engineering departments at Lakehead University in Canada. His research mission is to add value to the global Bioeconomy by applying an integrated biorefinery approach. Dr. Christopher is a member of the editorial board of several international biotechnology journals, advisory boards, and professional societies. He has made over 400 scientific contributions to the field of Biomass Biorefining.
Uncertainties about global petroleum reserves and oil prices, increasing energy demands and concerns about global warming have accelerated research and development programs in alternative renewable energy. Plant biomass is the single most abundant and renewable resource on earth that has the potential to supplant the use of fossil-derived transportation fuels and help create a more stable energy future. Forestry is traditionally a strong economic sector in North America that comprises about a third of the biomass resources in the U.S. and approximately 50 % of the biomass available for biorefining in Canada. However, due to the strong off-shore competition and gowing global movement for green fuels and chemicals, the North American pulp and paper and other fiber processing industries need to create additional revenues and diversify their products and markets to remain competitive. To achieve this, these industries need to evolve into integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) - our oil refineries of the future where oil is inevitably replaced by lignocellulosic biomass. IFBR are viewed as one of the economic pillars of the emerging global Bioeconomy, however, less than 10% of the total global fuels and chemicals production is currently biobased. This presentation provides an overview of the IFBR production and conversion platforms. The major research needs for IFBR deployment through process integration and waste utilization will be summarized, with a critical assessment of recent progress and remaining challenges that we currently face in our endevors to transition to a bio-based economy and society.
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Time : 10:00-10:30
Claudia Alcaraz Zini is an Associate Professor in the Institute of Chemistry of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul and works in the fi eld of Analytical Chemistry, mainly with sample preparation techniques, one-dimensional gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection applied to the extraction and analyses of volatiles and semi-volatile compounds in complex matrices. Complex matrices investigated are mainly related to wines, fruit juices, food and beverages, plants, essential oils, pyrolytic liquid phases (raw bio-oil, bio-oil, aqueous phase), petroleum, coal extracts, infochemicals, etc. She has more than 55 scientifi c articles published and 900 citations.
In this work, the main results of the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) in the analysis of bio-oils derived from biomass pyrolysis coming from Brazilian biodiversity, will be discussed. Th e fi rst part of our research involved the characterization of bio-oils from sugarcane straw and rice husk. From these biomasses, methods of research were defi ned according to biomass structure (using thermo-gravimetry and infrared spectroscopy) which allowed classifying them into diff erent groups with diff erent bio-oil composition. Th en, we began to work not only with the original purpose (generation of biofuels), but with the possibility of using this material as a source of raw materials for the chemical industry. Aiming this objective, the biomasses chosen for this study were: Sugarcane straw, rice husk, peach kernel, coconut fi ber, palm fiber, coff ee residue, tobacco seed, crambe seed, furniture industry waste, and pulp and paper industry waste among others. The use of GC×GC allowed the identifi cation and semi-quantitation of several products from the studied biomasses. In addition, the structured presentation of results allowed the identifi cation of a much larger number of compounds, compared with the literature, for these classes of compounds, and even solving problems of unclear identifi cation due to co-eluting compounds. This technique allows a separation in two-dimensional space using two columns of diff erent polarity and also has the possibility of increasing the identifi cation through the construction of curves (dispersion graphics) which can be extrapolated to families of compounds. Thus, in all biomasses studied, high levels of oxygenated compounds, mainly phenols derived from lignin were found. In biomass group, most lignocellulosic material (wood derivatives, straw and peel) were found with high levels of ketones and furans (derived from cellulose). In biomass derived from oilseeds (palm oil, crambe), acids and fatty esters, undecomposed and lighter acids were found, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. Th e tobacco and coff ee biomasses, produced bio-oils with high nitrogen content, especially pyridines. Another important factor considered was the use of catalysts. These were tested in the biomass sugarcane straw and wood waste, increasing, signifi cantly, the amount of hydrocarbons (saturated and aromatic). Th us, it can be concluded that the GC×GC technique allows a complete characterization of bio-oils generating data for their potential industrial use.
Maine Woods Biomass Exports, LLC, USA
Keynote: Expanding wood chip exports via long-term international relationships: Trust and commitment relationships - developing enduring transactions
Time : 09:00-09:30
Arthur T House is the Exporter of Phytosanitized Wood Chips for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and High Quality Wood Chips for paper manufacturing. He recently earned the Maine Woods Biomass Exports (MWBE) contract and Phytosanitary Approval Certifi cate from USDA-APHIS. MWBE is under long-term (12 –15 year) contract for the supply of Heat Treated Phytosanitized Wood Chips for CHP use. Output also includes a trademarked energy wood chip, E = MC3 for CHP to be exported as compressed bales at a density approaching wood pellets.
This presentation focuses on factors motivating the trend toward the enhanced duration of a buyer-seller relationship which will lead to long-term contractual relationships in an eff ort to contribute to a better understanding of the driving forces of trust and commitment. It will also focus on their impact on the importing fi rms’ performance in an exponentially expanding market context. Traditional sales of wood chips exported from mostly North American suppliers who are concluded as discrete transactions or spot market transactions. In the business world and in academia, the reference to a discreet transaction is one that relationships can be built upon, however, it is in its pure form, one that transpires having had no history between the parties, and nothing ever has been nor ever will be. Th is is akin to there being money on one side of the ocean and the commodity (Wood Chips) on the other and the one discrete transaction in the off ering (spot sale) and no more expectation to
follow. At the core of trust and commitment, marketing is the exchange that is profi table to parties involved in the exchange. Th e concept of exchanges as it applies to trust and commitment marketing is viewed from either a transaction cost analysis approach or a social exchange theory approach. Th e ultimate goal in developing the enduring relationship is to foster and maintain a competitive advantage over rival fi rms in the industry.