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2nd International Congress and Expo on Biofuels & Bioenergy, will be organized around the theme “Accelerating Advancements in the Field of Biofuels & Bioenergy”
Biofuels-2016 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Biofuels-2016
Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks. All related abstracts are accepted.
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Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. It most often refers to plants or plant-based materials which are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, andbiochemical methods. Wood remains the largest biomass energy source to date; examples include forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings, wood chips and even municipal solid waste. In the second sense, biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fibers or other industrial chemicals, including biofuels. Industrial biomass can be grown from numerous types of plantsincluding miscanthus, switchgrass, hemp, corn, poplar, willow,sorghum, sugarcane, bamboo, and a variety of tree species, ranging from eucalyptus to oil palm (palm oil). Biomass can be converted to other usable forms of energy like methane gas or transportation fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. There is research involving algal, or algae-derived, biomass due to the fact that it is a non-food resource and can be produced at rates five to ten times faster than other types of land-based agriculture, such as corn and soy. Using biomass as a fuel produces air pollution in the form of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, NOx (nitrogen oxides), VOCs (volatile organic compounds), particulates and other pollutants at levels above those from traditional fuel sources such as coal or natural gas in some cases (such as with indoor heating and cooking) Utilization of wood biomass as a fuel can also produce fewer particulate and other pollutants than open burning as seen in wildfires or direct heat applications. Black carbon – a pollutant created by combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels, and biomass – is possibly the second largest contributor to global warming.
- Track 1-1Conversion technologies (pyrolysis, gasification, biological conversion
- Track 1-2Sustainable feedstock development
- Track 1-3Agriculture biomass and energy production
- Track 1-4 Biomass and electricity
- Track 1-5Industrial waste biomass
Biodiesel is a form of diesel fuel manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases. It is safe, biodegradable, and produces less air pollutants than petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel is meant to be used in standard diesel engines and is thus distinct from the vegetable and waste oils used to fuel converted diesel engines. Biodiesel can be used Biodiesel can be used in pure form, or blended with petrodiesel in any proportions. Biodiesel blends can also be used as heating oil. It also can be obtained from Pongamia, field pennycress and jatropha and other crops such as mustard, jojoba, flax, sunflower, palm oil, coconut and hemp. Multiple economic studies have been performed regarding the economic impact of biodiesel production. One study, commissioned by the National Biodiesel Board, reported the 2011 production of biodiesel supported 39,027 jobs and more than $2.1 billion in household income. Many countries around the world are involved in the growing use and production of biofuels, such as biodiesel, as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels and oil. The surge of interest in biodiesels has highlighted a number of environmental effects associated with its use. These potentially include reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, pollution and the rate of biodegradation. However, environmental organizations, for example, Rainforest Rescue and Greenpeace, criticize the cultivation of plants used for biodiesel production; they say the deforestation of rainforests exacerbates climate change and that sensitive ecosystems are destroyed to clear land for oil palm, soybean and sugar cane plantations. Moreover, that biofuels contribute to world hunger, seeing as arable land is no longer used for growing foods.
- Track 2-1Crops for biodiesel production
- Track 2-2Biodiesel production from municipal waste
- Track 2-3Biodiesel as automobile fuel
- Track 2-4Cost effective techniques for biodiesel production
- Track 2-5Enzymatic biodiesel production
- Track 2-6Biodiesel production on industry level and scale up
Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. It is a renewable energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint. Biogas can be produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic bacteria, which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials. Biogas is primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes .Biogas is produced as landfill gas (LFG), which is produced by the breakdown of biodegradable waste inside a landfill due to chemical reactions and microbes, or as digested gas, produced inside an anaerobic digester. By converting cow manure into methane biogas via anaerobic digestion, the millions of cattle in the United States would be able to produce 100 billion kilowatt hours of electricity, enough to power millions of homes across the United States. In fact, one cow can produce enough manure in one day to generate 3 kilowatt hours of electricity; the dangers of biogas are mostly similar to those of natural gas, but with an additional risk from the toxicity of its hydrogen sulfide fraction. Biogas can be explosive when mixed one part biogas to 8-20 parts air.
- Track 3-1Biogas from agriculture waste
- Track 3-2Biogas from algae
- Track 3-3New & possible substrates for biogas production
- Track 3-4Biogas technologies
The principle fuel used as a petroleum substitute is bioethanol. Bioethanol is mainly produced by the sugar fermentation process, although it can also be produced by the chemical process of reacting ethylene with steam. The main source of sugar required to produce ethanol comes from fuel or energy crops. These fuel crops are normally grown specifically for energy use and include maize, corn and wheat crops, waste straw, willow, sawdust, reed canary grass, cord grasses, Jerusalem artichoke, Myscanthus and sorghum plants. There is also ongoing research and development into the use of municipal solid wastes to produce ethanol fuel. Brazil and the United States account for over 70 percent of all ethanol production in the world today with the USA producing an estimated 6,500 Million gallons a year. Bioethanol produces only carbon dioxide and water as the waster products on burning, and the carbon dioxide released during fermentation and combustion equals the amount removed from the atmosphere while the crop is growing This fuel is not suitable for use in all cars and you should check compatibility with your vehicle manufacturer before using it. If in doubt use the standard SP95 or SP98 Octane unleaded fuel which continues to be available alongside the new fuel. Researchers have recently launched a proposal to cultivate massive amounts of seaweed or algae. They laims that the project could occupy about ten thousand kilometers of seaweed farm and they estimated that the farm would be able to produce bioethanol from algae, as much as 20 million kiloliters or 5.3 billion gallons of bioethanol per year.
- Track 4-1Bioethanol production
- Track 4-2Bioalcohols from algae
- Track 4-3Bioalcohols as automobile fuel
- Track 4-4Bioalcohals from plant matter
- Track 4-5Generations of bioalcohols & scope of advancement
- Track 4-6Scale up on industrial level
Aviation biofuel is a biofuel used for aircraft. It is considered by some to be the primary means by which the aviation industry can reduce its carbon footprint. After a multi-year technical review from aircraft makers, engine manufacturers and oil companies, biofuels were approved for commercial use in July 2011. Since then, some airlines have experimented with using of biofuels on commercial flights. The focus of the industry has now turned to second generation sustainable biofuels that do not compete with food supplies. Drop-in" biofuels are biofuels that are completely interchangeable with conventional fuels. Deriving "drop-in" jet fuel from bio-based sources is ASTM approved via two routes. The first route involves using oil which is extracted from plant sources like Jatropha, algae, tallows, other waste oils, Babassu andcamelina to produce bio-SPK (Bio derived synthetic paraffinic Kerosene) by cracking and hydroprocessing. The growing of algae to make jet fuel is a promising but still emerging technology. Companies working on algae jet fuel are Solazyme, Honeywell UOP, Solena, Sapphire Energy, Imperium Renewables, and Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation. The second route involves processing solid biomass using pyrolysis to produce pyrolysis oil or gasification to produce a syngas which is then processed into FT SPK (Fischer–Tropsch Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene). The International Air Transport Association (IATA) supports research, development and deployment of alternative fuels. IATA thinks a 6% share of sustainable 2nd generation biofuels is achievable by 2020, and Boeing supports a target of 1% of global aviation fuels by 2015. This is in support of the goals of the aviation.
- Track 5-1Developing new sources for aviation biofuels
- Track 5-2 Commercialization of aviation biofuels
- Track 5-3Applications of aviation biofuels
- Track 5-4Biobased jet fuel
- Track 5-5Cost reduction policies
- Track 5-6 Large scale biogas production & challenges
In some poor countries the rising price of vegetable oil is causing problems. Some propose that fuel only be made from non-edible vegetable oils such as Camelina, Jatropha or seashore mallow which can thrive on marginal agricultural land where many trees and crops will not grow, or would produce only low yields.
Others argue that the problem is more fundamental. Farmers may switch from producing food crops to producing biofuel crops to make more money, even if the new crops are not edible. The law of supply and demand predicts that if fewer farmers are producing food the price of food will rise. It may take some time, as farmers can take some time to change which things they are growing, but increasing demand for first generation biofuels is likely to result in price increases for many kinds of food. Some have pointed out that there are poor farmers and poor countries that are making more money because of the higher price of vegetable oil. There is ongoing research into finding more suitable crops and improving oil yield. Other sources are possible including human fecal matter, with Ghana building its first "fecal sludge-fed biodiesel plant. A group of Spanish developers working for a company called Ecofasa announced a new biofuel made from trash. The fuel is created from general urban waste which is treated by bacteria to produce fatty acids, which can be used to make biodiesel. Another approach that does not require the use of chemical for the production, it involves the use of genetically modified microbes.
- Track 6-1Biofuels impact on food security
- Track 6-2Nonfood crops for biofuels production
- Track 6-3Agricultural modernization and its impact on society and environment
A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refineries, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. Industrial biorefineries have been identified as the most promising route to the creation of a new domestic biobased industry. By producing multiple products; a biorefinery can take advantage of the differences in biomass components and intermediates and maximize the value derived from the biomass feedstock. A biorefinery might, for example, produce one or several low-volume, but high-value, chemical products and a low-value, but high-volume liquid transportation fuel, while generating electricity and process heat for its own use and perhaps enough for sale of electricity. The high-value products enhance profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet national energy needs, and the power production reduces costs and avoids greenhouse-gas emissions.
- Track 7-1Types of biorefineries
- Track 7-2Biorefining systems
- Track 7-3Biorefining scheme from algal and bacterial protein sources
- Track 7-4Integrated biorefinery
- Track 7-5Risk management issues
- Track 7-6Bio oil production
Algal biofuel is an alternative to liquid fossil fuels that uses algae as its source of energy-rich oils. Several companies and government agencies are funding efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. Like fossil fuel, algae fuel releases CO2 when burnt, but unlike fossil fuel, algae fuel and other biofuels only release CO2 recently removed from the atmosphere via photosynthesis as the algae or plant grew. With current technology available it is estimated that the cost of producing microalgal biomass is $2.95/kg for photobioreactors and $3.80/kg for open-ponds. These estimates assume that carbon dioxide is available at no cost. If the annual biomass production capacity is increased to 10000 tonnes, the cost of production per kilogram reduces to roughly $0.47 and $0.60, respectively. Assuming that the biomass contains 30% oil by weight, the cost of biomass for providing a liter of oil would be approximately $1.40 and $1.81 for photobioreactors and raceways, respectively. Oil recovered from the lower cost biomass produced in photobioreactors is estimated to cost $2.80/L, assuming the recovery process contributes 50% to the cost of the final recovered oil. Numerous Funding programs have been created with aims of promoting the use of Renewable Energy. In Canada, the ecoAgriculture biofuels capital initiative (ecoABC) provides $25 million per project to assist farmers in constructing and expanding a renewable fuel production facility. In Europe, the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) is the main instrument for funding research. Similarly, the NER 300 is an unofficial, independent portal dedicated to renewable energy and grid integration projects.
- Track 9-1Culturing algae
- Track 9-2Harvesting and oil extraction system
- Track 9-3 Cyanobacterial biofuels production
- Track 9-4Commercialization of algae biofuels
- Track 9-5Wastewater based algae biofuels production
- Track 9-6 Algal bio sequestration
- Track 9-7Advances in biofuel production
- Track 10-1biofuels companies and market analysis